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Full text of "Recollections of a long life, with additional extracts from his private diaries"



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RECOLLECTIONS OF A LONG LIpE 




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http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924088008101 




LORD BROUGHTON. 

FROM A MINIATURE 

BY SIR WILLIAM NEWTON, R.A.. 

IN LADY DORCHESTER'S POSSESSION. 



RECOLLECTIONS OF 
A LONG LIFE 

BY LORD BROUGHTON 

(JOHN CAM HOBHOUSE) 

WITH ADDITIONAL EXTRACTS 
FROM HIS PRIVATE DIARIES 



EDITED BY HIS DAUGHTER 

LADY DORCHESTER v 




WITH PORTRAITS. IN TWO VOLUMES 
VOL. I. 1786— 1816 



LONDON 
JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET, W. 

1909 

H 



^7^ 



^1^j^ 



PRINTED BY 

HAZBLL, WATSON AND VINET, LD., 

LONDON AND AYLEaBUBY. 



NOTE BY THE PUBLISHEE, 

Lady Dorchester has done me the honour of 
entrusting to me the publication of these two 
volumes of her Father's Reminiscences, and has 
asked me to write a brief explanatory note. 

The Preface which Lord E,osebery has kindly 
added renders it unnecessary for me to make any 
further allusion to Lord Broughton himself ; but 
a few words are required to explain to the reader 
the nature and origin of the records contained in 
the following pages. 

Lord Broughton wrote, and caused to be printed 
in five volumes, in the sixties, his " Recollections 
of a Long Life " — a work which, for various 
reasons, has not hitherto been published. 

In addition to this he left a large number of 
Diaries and MSS., as well as his published 
^volumes : " A Journey through Albania, etc., to 
Constantinople, 1809-10," containing an account 
of his tour with Lord Byron ; " Letters from Paris 
during the Last Reign of Napoleon " (1816), and 
" Italy from 1816 to 1854." 



VI NOTE BY THE PUBLISHEB, 

In order to make the work as complete as 
possible, Lady Dorchester, taking the early part 
of the five volumes as a hasis, has, with much 
labour, consideration, and research, incorporated 
therewith portions of the Diaries and a few 
extracts from the above-named published works. 

These various sources are indicated throughout, 
and it is hoped that the Reminiscences as they 
now stand may prove of value and interest to 
the public. 

I desire to thank Lord Kinnaird for kindly 
giving me permission to reproduce a portrait of 
his great-uncle the Hon. Douglas Kinnaird. 

J. M. 

50, Albemarle Street, 
May 1909. 



PREFACE 

BY THE EAEL OF EOSEBEEY, K.G. 

Lady Dorchester desires a short preface for 
the first volumes into which she has gathered 
a selection from her father's papers. These do 
not seem to require one, hut obedience to just 
authority is the law of life. 

Her father, John Cam Hobhouse, Lord 
Broughton, was a prominent character in the 
first half of the last century. He began as a 
staunch, almost fierce Radical ; became by a 
natural process of evolution a Whig ; and ended in 
the order of congruity as a peer. He was withal a 
sturdy, able, hard-working man ; wrote books and 
good books ; travelled and recorded his travels ; 
held high oflSce, and held it with conscience ; was 
Secretary at War, Chief Secretary for Ireland, 
First Commissioner for Works, only for short 
terms ; but was President of the Board of Control 
for twelve years, the renewal of his tenure from 
1846 to 1851 being a marked approbation of his 
Ministry from 1835 to 1846. He invented the 
phrase " His Majesty's Opposition," and was 



Viii PEEFACE 

proud of having added it to our political dialect. 
A busy, strenuous life. 

But his memory will not rest on his political 
career : it has more permanent foundations. 

He was one of those valuable men who are 
determined to lead as full a life as possible, to see 
all the famous places and people accessible to them, 
and who record their impressions. A man of in- 
dependent means, he was able to gratify his tastes, 
to travel at a time when travelling was costly and 
diflicult, and to pursue congenial work in a con- 
genial way. Erom the first he took every op- 
portunity of seeing and hearing distinguished 
characters. Born in 1786, and educated at West- 
minster School, he heard in youth Pitt, Pox, 
Sheridan, and Windham speak, as well as 
Plunket, Grattan, and Canning, with whom he 
was afterwards to sit in Parliament. At 
Cambridge he made the acquaintance of Byron, 
who was to colour his life. With him he set 
forth travelling, parting with him somewhat 
abruptly after twelve months of common adventure. 
" Took leave," he writes, " non sine lacrymis, of 
this singular young person, on a little stone terrace 
at the end of the bay, dividing with him a 
little nosegay of flowers ; the last thing perhaps 
that I shall ever divide with him." He passes 
from this singular young person to "a violent. 



PKEFACE IX 

peremptory person," Lady Hester Stanhope, and 
returns home. 

He was now only twenty-four, and had filled 
his life well. He is not less diligent on his 
return, when his journal hecomes a faithful 
reflection of the London season, with its distinctions 
and pomposities and ineptitudes, its lions, its 
coxcomhs, and its bores. 

He sees Mrs. Siddons take leave of the stage 
as Lady Macbeth, sees and studies Kean, condemns 
Mrs. Jordan. He is present when Byron speaks, 
and keeps the House of Lords in convulsions of 
laughter; he hears Sidmouth's experiences as 
the playmate of the younger Pitt under the awful 
eye of Chatham; he listens to Sheridan's vivid 
and piquant reminiscences. He travels again, 
and sees something of the horrors'^ of the war 
of 1813, sees Bernadotte in curl-papers, and the 
Prince de Ligne in his famous little doll's house 
at Vienna. Wherever he goes he makes the best 
of himself and of this world. 

There is one outcome of all this, whether 
cause or effect it is difficult to say : Hobhouse 
is a hero worshipper. His two gods are Byron 
and Napoleon; the one near, almost too near, 
the other remote. But when his remote idol 
becomes visible during the Hundred Days 
Hobhouse hastens, with rare and admirable good 

VOL. I b 



X PKEPACB 

sense, to Paris to see him. His wishes are 
gratified ; indeed he twice stares Napoleon out of 
countenance, and is able to depict the Emperor 
graphically; watches him intently at reviews 
and in church, where he " was perpetually swaying 
about, not still for an instant " ; sees him with 
some alarm box a tall colonel's ears with all his 
strength on parade, and only understands when 
he sees the colonel walk away, tingling and 
delighted, that the buffet is a good-humoured sign 
of friendship ; finds Napoleon's face new each 
time, and comes to the conclusion that he " never 
saw anybody with such a face — the lower part 
is not imjtable scarcely, except in Mrs. Darner's 
picture." 

When Napoleon leaves Paris for "Waterloo, 
Hobhouse leaves too, a vexatious circumstance 
for his readers. But he returns, and finds matter 
enough to write his "Last Reign of Napoleon," 
a book of two volumes, which now might be 
boiled down into an excellent book of one ; which 
Napoleon honoured with a commentary; and 
which of all Hobhouse's literary work is most 
likely to survive. 

But it is as Byron's friend and advocate that 
he will best be remembered. In these volumes 
we see the beginning of the acquaintance, when 
they were fellow students at Cambridge, when 



PREFACE XI 

they were fellow travellers, and separated with- 
out much regret. But in London they come 
close together, and Hobhouse is now completely 
under the charm. " Lord Byron, whom I love 
more and more every day, not so much from his 
fame as his fondness — I think not equivocal — for 
me," leads him where he will. He becomes 
mixed up in Byron's debts and affairs. He is 
Byron's confidant in his marriage and its collapse, 
and gives a detailed account of the beginning 
and end of this melancholy transaction ; of his 
conducting the reluctant bridegroom to the 
North by stages suspiciously easy, of the simple 
ceremony in a parlour, of the return of the 
couple to London, when Hobhouse is alarmed. 
" Called on Byron. In that quarter things do 
not go well.. Strong advice against marriage." 
Within two months of this entry the catastrophe 
had come. Five months afterwards Byron sets 
off, attended by Hobhouse, on his last voyage 
from England, a flight from the fury of London 
society and the importunity of his creditors. 
The last he only escapes by ten minutes, for he 
had hardly driven from the door when the bailiffs 
entered, and seized all that was in the house, and 
would have seized the travelling carriage. For 
the rest of Byron's stormy life Hobhouse remains 
his closest and most devoted friend, his strenuous 



xii PBEFACE 

cliainpion, his honest adviser in his constant 
troubles and difficulties. He loved Byron with 
a jealous affection and admiration which never 
degenerated into flattery; and their intimacy 
during the eight remaining years was only once 
clouded for a moment by an irrepressible epigram 
of the poet's. Hobhouse survived Byron for 
forty-five years, for thirty-six of which he was, 
as it were, facing Lady Byron, Avho embodied in 
silence the hostile view, and during that long 
period represented the Byron epoch. He was 
indeed the high priest of the Byron mystery. He 
knew more about Byron than any man. Those 
who saw him in his old age — and he lived to be 
eighty-three— regarded him with unspeakable 
interest as one who knew all and could tell all if 
he chose. But he did not choose to tell. Much 
of Byron, of the secrets of that brilliant, unhappy 
life, died with him. Perhaps it is as well. 

But Hobhouse wrote much. He collected 
and preserved a great mass of papers. As Byron's 
executor and by process of exchange he possessed 
a great quantity of Byron's most confidential . 
letters, among them those — the most confidential — 
to that remarkable Lady Melbourne, who held 
sway in London society, was the mother of the 
Prime Minister of that name and of Lady Palmer- 
ston, who had a tangled story of her own, and who 



PREFACE XUl 

piqued herself, not unjustly, on being the poet's 
principal confidant. There were letters from that 
Avild Lady Caroline whom Mrs. Humphry "Ward 
has revived, letters to and from all sorts and con- 
ditions of men and women, documents of passion, 
outpourings, written appeals. Hobhouse himself 
would draw up narratives of particular episodes. 
It was, in fine, a collection of singular delicacy, 
requiring singular discretion. 

To Lady Dorchester has fallen the filial task 
of selecting from what survives of this vast mass 
of manuscript the pages which will interest the 
living without wronging the dead. The times of 
Hobhouse's youth have passed into the domain of 
history, some episodes into that of legend. The 
radiant form of Byron occupies its appointed niche 
in literature ; but the details of his turbulent life 
must always interest the world ; and many such 
incidents will be found in this book. We may 
all congratulate and thank the editress for her 

part. 

E. 

A2}ril 1909. 



CONTENTS 



CHAPTER I 



Birth and parentage — Bristol Nonconformists — Dr. Estlin — General 
Election, 1796 — First Marquess of Lansdowne — Westminster School — 
Tour in Scotland — Cambridge — Acquaintance with Lord Byron pp. 1-5 



CHAPTER II 

Start with Byron for Lisbon — Review of British troops — General 
Juuot — General Kellermann saved by English officers — Unpopularity 
of French Generals — Portuguese convents and customs — Cintra — 
Dogs in Lisbon — Elvas — ^Monastereo — Seville — Xeres — Arrival of 
Marquess Wellesley — Gibraltar and Sardinia — Malta — General Oakes — 
Mrs. Spencer Smith — Popularity of Lord Bjron — Mr. Forresti — Story 
of Ali Pasha — Byron accepts a challenge — ReconciUation — Gulf of 
Corinth— ^Encounter with Turkish vessel — Prevesa — Ali Pasha and his 
Son — Zitza — Ali Pasha's rule — Tepelini — Visit to the Vizier — Jannina 
— Byron writing " Childe Harold " — ^Volondoracho — Aotium — Misso- 
loughi — ^Vostizza and Delphi — Thebes — Athens — Cave in Mount 
Pames — Smyrna — The Dardanelles — Byron and Mr. Ekenhead swim 
across the Hellespont — Constantinople — Mr. Stratford Canning — A 
dispute as to salutes — Zea. — Malta — Lucien Buonaparte — British fleet 
off Toulon — Return home pp. 6-33 



CHAPTER III 

Reconciliation with my father — My brother Benjamin at the battle 
of Albuera — Cambridge — C. S. Matthews — M. G. Lewis — I take my 
M.A. degree — Byron's return — I write my book on Albania — Byron's 
maiden speech — Story of Frederick North and the Dey of Algiers — 
Whitton — The cartoons at Hampton Court — Salt, the Abyssinian 
traveller — London Society — Murder of Mr. Perceval — New Ministry — 
Newstead — " A week of delirium "— =-Anecdote of Dr. Johnson in his 
last illness — Lady Jane Harley — My commission in the Miners — 
Reflections — Herschel's reflector — Mrs. Siddons's farewell — Byron in 



Xvi CONTENTS 

a scrape— Lady Bessborough— Anecdote of Buonaparte at Ulm— 
Newstead offered for sale-Bought in-Stratford-on-Avon— Bu'mmg- 
ham— Wales— Lord Sidmouth's reminiscences of Lord Chatham 

pp. 34-47 



CHAPTER IV 

Publication of my Travels— Journey to Sweden— Bemadotte— 
Stralsund— Strelitz— The Duke of Cumberland— Princess Lomsa of 
Prussia— Sir Charles Stewart— I meet Sir Robert Wilson— Berlm— 
Douglas Kinnaird— We visit the headquarters of Emperor Alexander 
— Peterswaldau— Silberberg— B. Semple, an English prisoner— Glatz— 
Vienna— Conferences at Prague— Napoleon did not want peace — 
Renewed hostilities— Battles of Dresden and Kulm— Our journey to 
Fiume— Pola — Roman remains— Captain Moresby — French methods — 
Fianone — Shooting excursion in Dalmatia — The Counts Skrini — The 
Frangipani— A sleep-talker— Fiume again — Deserters — Surrender of 
Laybach-Lippa—Adelsberg— Post-boys in French liveries — Laybach 
— Carinthia — Neumarktel — An English settler — A wonderful road — 
Klagenfurth—Gratz-Styria— Countess Purgstall — Anecdote of Na- 
poleon — To Vienna — The Prince de Ligne— Baron Humboldt — Prague 
— Toplitz — Columns of French prisoners — Dresden — Reminiscences of 
the battle — And of Napoleon — Leipsig — Monument to Joseph Ponia- 
towski — Relics of the battle — Lutzen — Weimar — Hanau — Frankfort — 
In sight of the armies — Stories of the fighting — Mr. Rolfe — ^Westphalia 
— Lord Castlereagh passes — Cassel — Advance of the allies — Jerome 
Buonaparte — The Landgrave of Hesse and his family — General Dorn- 
berg — Munster — Holland — King Louis — Severe cold — Return home 

pp. 48-82 



CHAPTER V 

London — Kinnaird — Madame de Stael — Dinners at Holland House 
and elsewhere — Kean as King Richard — News of Napoleon and the 
allies — A bet with Byron — Miss Mercer — Stories of the Princess of 
Wales — Of the Duchess of St, Albans — Of Madame de Lieven — 
Napoleon's return — Anecdotes of Pitt and Lord Thurlow— Dinner at 
Mrs. Cuthbert's — Savary and Caulaincourt — Brougham — Madame de 
Stael — Lord Portsmouth's marriage to Miss Hanson — Thomas Campbell 
— Party at Lady Keith's — Kean in Hamlet — Anecdotes of Kean — 
News of Berghen-op-Zoom — Dinner at Mrs. Cockbum's — Wellington's 
victory at Orthes — Lady Melbourne — Anecdote of Mr. Phipps and 
Duchess of Devonshire — Gambling in London — Proclamation of Murat 
ICing of Naples — The allies declare for the Bourbons — Cambridge — 
The allies enter Paris — Abdication of Napoleon — Illuminations — Start 
for Paris with Henry Grattan, junior — Appearance and gossip of 
Paris — Entry of Louis XVIII. — Review of the allied troops — The Duke 



CONTENTS XVll 

of Wellington — Ball at Sir Charles Stewart's — The Emperor of Russia — 
To St. Denis — Stories of Napoleon — Return home — ^Metternioh and 
Napoleon — Custom House troubles — Moore and The Edinburgh Review — 
Madame de Stael's opinion of England — Anecdotes of Napoleon — His 
military talents — Madame de Stael and the Bourbons — At Lady 
Jersey's — Lady Westmorland — Kean as Othello — Stories of the 
Passage of the Adour — A suspected thief — Colonel Cram — Anecdotes of 
Napoleon — Mr. Leigh — His travels up the Nile — An adventure with 
Arabs — R. B. Sheridan — Anecdotes of Kean, Mr. Fox, Mrs. Siddons, 
etc. — The allied sovereigns in London — At the Opera — Dinner at 
Holland House — The Russian Emperor and Lord Erskine — Grattan's 
mimicry and anecdotes — The Princess Charlotte and the Prince of 
Orange — The Royal visitors — Intention of standing for Cambridge — 
Coiint Kalkreuth — Stories of Frederick the Great, and of the French 
campaign in Russia — Cambridge — and politics — ^The Jubilee in London ' 
— Publication of " Lara " — Leigh's Egyptian tour — Napoleon and the 
Jaffa massacres — Byron's engagement — Napoleon at Elba — ^Mrs. 
Smith's autographs — French letter from Brougham — Bowood — Byron 
and Cawthorn — General Pac — His reminiscences of Napoleon, etc.^ 
Criticism of the allies — Kean's anecdotes — Woburn — Colonel Camp- 
bell's reports from Elba — Anecdotes of Napoleon — Mr. Macnamara's 
interview — Lady Sefton's stories — The Duke unpopular in Paris 

pp. 83-190 

CHAPTER VI 

BjT^on — Visit to Cambridge — Gibbon — Journey to Seaham with 
Byron — Miss Milbanke — Sir Ralph Milbanke — His stories — Byron's 
wedding ... pp. 191-197 



CHAPTER VII 

The Rev. A. Champagne — Stories of W. Pitt — Voltaire's " Merope " 
— R. B. Sheridan — His opinion of Burke — Anecdotes of Dr. Lawrence — 
Of Richard Tickell— Of Bishop O'Byrne— Of C. J. Fox, etc.— News of 
Napoleon's escape from Elba — General anxiety — Napoleon's advance 
to Paris — The Emperor Alexander in a dressing match — Le Congres 
eat diaaout — George Colman — Lord Alvanley — Sheridan and Brummell 
— Conflicting rumours from France — Affairs in Paris — Flight of 
Louis XVIII. — Uncertainty in Paris — Napoleon and his old soldiers — 
The French Army — The new Ministry in Paris — Difficulty of getting to 
France — I leave for Paris — Anecdote of Louis XVIII. 's injustice — 
Voyage to Ostend — Lord Sligo's stories — Lady Oxford in Naples — 
Passports — Tournay — ^Meeting with Captain Hobhouse — His experi- 
ences and adventures — Escape of Louis — Count de Bouthillier — The 
Duke of Wellington arrives in Brussels — Lord Hill and the Prince of 
Orange — Anecdote of the Duke — Lord Fitzroy Somerset — Mons — 

VOL. I C 



Xviii CONTENTS 

Across the French frontier— Valenciennes— Compiegne— Arrival in 
Paris— Declaration of the allies— Lady Kinnaird's experiences- 
Napoleon's dispositions— The English in Paris— Mrs. Bailly Wallis— 
Madame de Souza— The Tuileries— A review of troops— My first sight 
of Napoleon— Description of him— His habits and demeanour— Fanny 
Beauharnais— Voluntary reduction of Marseilles— Folly of the emigres 
nobles— Crisis in France— Details of escape from Elba— And of 
Napoleon's advance through France— Grenoble— Anecdotes of 
Napoleon— At the Jroracois— Napoleon's personal appearance— The 
Imperial Guard— M. de 'Lascour's opinion of him — In the Tuileries 
chapel — A review— Napoleon leaves for the front — I start for England 
— Compelled to return to Paris — The Moniteur — Rumours of a French 
victory — First news of Waterloo — Sennecy — Montereau — Paris again — 
The National Guard — Paris in uncertainty — Fouch^ — Napoleon's 
abdication — His personal losses — His characteristics — Advance of the 
allies— Fears in Paris— Flight of Napoleon— His library — Surrender 
of Paris — Fouch6 dines with the Duke — Napoleon at Niort — Death of 
Captain Hobhouse— Anecdotes of Waterloo— The allied armies 
arrive — Letter to Lord Castlereagh — The Chamber of Deputies — 
Muffling Governor of Paris — Entry of the King — Napoleon at Rochefort 
— The English popular and the Pr\assians unpopular in Paris — Anec- 
dotes of Waterloo ball — Lord Hill's sentinel on the Pont de Jena — 
Surrender of French Army — Napoleon and Josephine — Napoleon and 
Wellington — Thiers's History — Contrast between English and Prussian 
soldiers — ^Mrs. Darner's narrative — Sismondi and Napoleon — Return 
to England — Surrender of Napoleon — " The Last Reign of Napoleon " 
— Napoleon's letter to the Prince Regent — Napoleon in the North- 
umberland — Execution of Ney — Dinner at Holland House — Dudley 
North's mot about Erskine — Various anecdotes — Sir W. Scott's " Paul's 
Letters " — Lord Erskine and Flahaut — Anecdotes of Lord Erskine — Sir 
J. Barrow — General Sebastiani — L. Hunt's anecdote of Dr. Johnson — 
Thrale — Anecdote of Voltaire — Preparations for Byron's departure 
— To Dover with Byron — Brougham's calumnies — Lady C. Lamb — 
Publication of " Bertram " — Attack in The Quarterly — Mungo Park's 
Travels — " Glenarvon " — Madame Ivrudner — Henry Hobhouse returns 
from India — Napoleon at St. Helena — His designs on India — Sheridan's 
funeral — End of season of 1816 pp. 198-348 



LIST OE ILLUSTRATIONS 

Lord Broughton . ^ Frontispiece 

From a miniature by Sir William Newton, R.A., In Lady Dorchester's possession. 

FACING PAGE 

Portrait of Lord Byron 98 

Reproduced and given by the late Earl of Lovelace to Lady Dorchester, from a 
miniature in his possession. 



RECOLLECTIONS OF A 
LONG LIFE 



CHAPTER I 

I WAS born on June 27, in the year 1786, at 1786. 
Eedland, near Bristol. My father was the second 
son of a Bristol merchant ; my mother the daughter 
of Mr. 0am of Bradford, in Wiltshire. 

My father received his education at the public 
grammar-school at Bristol, and Brazenose College 
at Oxford ; at the former he delivered the annual 
oration in the presence of Mr. Burke, then one of 
the members for the city. Mr. Burke condescended 
to notice this performance by presenting my father 
with a copy of " Paradise Lost," having on the 
cover of it an inscription of a flattering nature, 
which those who come after me will, I trust, pre- 
serve with the same scrupulous care as I have 
always regarded it. 

My grandfather Hobhouse must have been of 
some consideration, as he was twice offered by the 
Tory party to be proposed for the representation 
of Bristol in Parliament : my grandfather Cam 
was one of the principal persons of Bradford, a 
Justice of the Peace, and possessed of landed 

VOL. I 1 



12 IIABLY YEARS Chap. 1. 

1786. property, wMch. in those days was reckoned very 
respectable. 

My mother died when I was very young, and 
my father married a second wife, the sister of 
Dr. Parry, an eminent physician resident at 
Bath, the father of the celebrated Sir Edward 
Parry. My mother left four children — three sons 
and one daughter. Miss Cam was a Dissenter, 
so was my father after his marriage with her. 
Miss Amelia Parry was also a Dissenter; I was 
consequently sent, in the first instance, to a school 
kept by a Unitarian minister at Bristol, which 
was then the headquarters and principal resort of 
the Nonconformists. The chapel at which my 
master, Dr. Estlin, preached, was attended by 
some of the most influential merchants of the city, 
such as the Brights and the Castles, and others 
of equal respectability. Bristol, when I was at 
school there, became the residence of men after- 
wards much celebrated — I allude to Coleridge, 
and Southey, and Lamb. Dr. Beddoes also was 
settled at Clifton, and when he lectured on 
chemistry was assisted by a still more distinguished 
person — I mean Humphry Davy — who, at that 
time, was attendant at a small apothecary's shop 
at the bottom of St. Michael's Hill. 

Coleridge and Southey used to frequent Dr. 
Estlin's house, and partook occasionally of his 
modest repasts. When I got near the top of the 
school I was allowed to be present at these little 
suppers; and well do I recollect that Coleridge, 



Chap. I. BRISTOL AND WESTMINSTER 3 

repeating one of his poems, in which there was 1786. 
some allusion to a cavern, arrested the attention 
of a friend at the whist-table and caused him to 
revoke — not without his marked resentment, for 
he exclaimed, " Rot your cavern ; I wish you 
were in it ! " 

At the dissolution of Parliament in 1796 my 
father became a candidate for Bristol, and resided 
in Dr. Estlin's house during the contest. He was 
not successful ; the Whigs were divided, and the 
Tories carried both the seats without difficulty. 
Shortly afterwards he was returned by Sir Chris- 
topher Hawkins for Grampound, and continued 
to sit in Parliament for that place, and for Hindon 
in Wiltshire, until the year 1818. 

Whilst at this Bristol school I was attacked by 
a serious pulmonary complaint, and was removed, 
first to my father's house, and afterwards to the 
residence of a clergyman at Bath; where, after 
being confined to a single room for ten months, I 
recovered my health, and never since have had 
any symptoms of pulmonary disease. 

My father was intimate with the first Marquess 
of Lansdowne, and took me to Bowood. This to 
me was an important event, for it was during that 
visit that my father was persuaded to remove me 
from my Bristol seminary and send me to West- 
minster School, where Lord Henry Petty had 
received his education. I went there in the year 
1800, and was placed by the Head Master, Dr. 
Vincent, in the upper Shell, the form immediately 



4 EAEIiT TEARS Chap. I. 

1786J next to the sixth form. Being the son of a 
Member of Parliament, I had the adrantage of 
occasionally attending the House of Commons, 
and sitting under the strangers' gallery. On these 
occasions I saw and heard most of the great 
orators of that period— Pitt, and Pox, and Sheridan, 
and Windham— besides others of scarcely less note 
— Plunket, Grattan, and Canning — whom I heard 
in after-days, when a member of the House. 

Prom Westminster School I went to Trinity 
College, Cambridge, and there I did little or 
nothing, except that, after taking my Bachelor's 
degree, I gained an obscure honour, the Hulsean 
prize, for an "Essay on Sacrifices." This, in 
accordance with the conditions of the prize, was 
printed and published. I read it the other day, 
and did not think it badly done. 

Whilst at Trinity College I took a holiday tour 
under circumstances not unworthy of mention. I 
visited the Hebrides ; my companion, the son of 
Mr. William Smith, M.P. for Norwich, had letters 
of introduction to several considerable persons, 
and amongst them was one to Colonel Macleod, 
lately returned from India and settled on the 
banks of Loch Pyne. That gentleman was the 
son of the minister of St. Kilda, and, on returning 
from India and settling in Scotland, had bought 
the island which he had left, a bare-legged boy, 
to seek his fortune. He was a most pleasing, 
well-informed gentleman, in every way worthy of 
the success which had attended his career. We 



Chap. I. TRAVEL AND PBIENDS 5 

sailed with him in his small sloop ; were ten days 1786. 
on our passage, landed with him on his island, 
saw him take possession of his domains, and 
receive the joyous homage of his subjects — some 
thirty souls. 

During my Scottish travels on this occasion I 
made the acquaintance of the Duchess of Gordon ; 
of Henry Mackenzie, the author of the " Man of 
Feeling " ; and Henry Erskine, brother of the 
famous Thomas Erskine. This excursion gave me 
my first inclination for travelling. 

At Cambridge I formed an acquaintance with 
Lord Byron, and, having taken my degree, I 
travelled with him across Portugal and Spain to 
Gibraltar and Malta, and thence to Albania, 
Greece, and Constantinople. Of these Travels I 
published an account.^ 

This, however, was not my first publication, for 
I had been unwise enough to put my name to 
a volume of " Poetical Miscellanies," of which, 
although Lord Byron was one of the contributors, 
I soon became heartily ashamed. 

1 Note by Editoe. — These " Travels,'' though very well received 
at the time (full of research and erudition), are now somewhat 
obsolete in form, and also have been followed by other notable 
works dealing with the same subjects. The Editor therefore thinks 
that a short transcript from diaries of the time may be acceptable 
to the general reader. 



CHAPTER II 

" Hobhouse is writing learned prose on antiquities, and I am 
' scribbling verses.' " — Byron Letters (destined, as every one knows, 
to be immortalised in the first cantos of " Childe Harold "). 

1809. Byron and I left England on June 26, and arrived, 
after a rough passage, at Lisbon on July 8. We 
put up at tlie Buenos Ayres Hotel, where a Mr. 
Bulkeley charged us 13 per cent, for changing 
our money. 

We spent the first two or three days in visiting 
the town, and especially the theatres, where the 
audiences are much addicted to Iberian dances 
of a lascivious character. At the Monastery at 
Bela, dedicated to St. Jerome, none of the monks 
could speak or understand a word of Latin, which 
in other countries is universally understood in 
clerical societies. 

July 11. — We had a review of British troops 
under G-eneral Crawford. 

A police force of 1,500 horse and foot is main- 
tained in Lisbon to prevent disorders. These 
were selected out of the existing Portuguese 
army by the Prench when they occupied the 
country, and have been continued by us. There 
is, however, neither justice nor punishment, save 



CHAt>. II, FRENCH GENERALS IN PORTUGAL 7 

in extraordinary cases, and both, may be generally 1809. 
averted by a bribe. A Mr. Turner, whom we 
met there, told ns that he once saw four men 
of rank walking in a religious procession with 
hair cloaks on as a penance for murders com- 
mitted by them. Sanguinetti saw a man killed 
by a boy of thirteen in a chandler's shop. 

Junot seems to have been much liked in Lisbon. 
He used to ride about with no escort save a 
young groom, in the English fashion. The liber- 
ality of his table, Mr. Kintella — who holds a 
monopoly for the sale of tobacco in Lisbon and 
Portugal worth £250,000 a year — says, cost him 
from £170 to £200 a day, and may have accounted 
for much of his popularity. When Junot went 
to fight at Yimeira he so disposed his forces that 
while he left only a thousand men to garrison 
the city, the people of Lisbon itself believed that 
there was a large force left there. When they 
discovered the real facts of the case, many of 
the French were murdered. General Kellerman 
was saved only by the intervention of some British 
oflB^cers, who hustled him into the water, and so 
to a boat. The fate of the French who perished 
was largely due to their own rapacity. Even 
General Loison is reported to have followed 
Bandeira, a rich merchant of the town, in whose 
house he lodged, round his room with a loaded 
pistol, demanding money, while the subordinates 
were much worse. 

The manners of the monks certainly display 



8 LISBON CHAf. n. 

1809. levity. I saw some of them in church pull- 
ing about a woman, while close by another 
was praying at a shrine. There appear to be 
about 60,000 of these ecclesiastics in Lisbon 
itself, and something like 300,000 in Portugal, 
out of a total population of 2,000,000. 

Convents are most of them supported by beg- 
ging, and people are denounced who refuse to 
contribute. Of ten fish which a fisherman brings 
to market, two are carried off by purveyors for 
the monks, and two by officers of the Court. 
Such are the exactions of the Church and the 
patience of the people, who are still in bondage 
to an ignorant and tyrannical priesthood. 

Dead bodies are exposed in the churches with 
a plate on them, and are not buried until 
sufficient money is collected to pay the priest. 
The inquisition even is not yet abolished. Twenty 
people have lately been arrested and sent to 
the dungeons under the great square of Roccio. 

July 12. — We paid a visit to Cintra. Mont- 
serrat, formerly the house of Mr. Beckford, is 
now devoid of all furniture, and deserted. Byron 
went to see the palace and monastery of Mafra, 
where, until the inroad of the French, were 150 
monks. Of these only 30 are now left. There 
is a large and admirable library, which contains, 
however, not a single English book, and one of 
the monks asked him whether there were any 
books in England ! 

The Convent of Jesus contains another magni- 



Chap. IL THE PORTUGUESE 9 

ficent library, but only two works are in English i809. 
— " Travels in Portugal," and Sir Isaac Newton's 
works. A bust of the latter, together with 
one of John Locke, adorned the room. In a 
smaller library were placed livres dSfendus, 
amongst which were the " Refutation of the Tal- 
mud," Bayle's Dictionary, and some of Voltaire's 
books. The French Encyclopaedia, however, was 
in the Public Library, which, until the Erench 
came, was open to the public, but which is now 
shut to them. One of the monks, who was show- 
ing us the picture of a battle in which were being 
used cannons and firearms, informed us that it 
was a representation of an ancient Roman fight ! 

Service in the army does not appear to be 
popular. It is recruited by surrounding the 
public gardens from time to time and taking 
for service all persons who are found inside and 
are unmarried. Transport is provided by seizing 
the equipages, both of the nobility and other 
people, and sending them off to the army, paying 
for them in worthless paper money. 

The dogs in Lisbon are still numerous, though 
10,000 were killed by the Erench. This act, 
though no doubt necessary, has enraged the people, 
who have thus lost their only scavengers. 

Avarice and immorality appear to be the reign- 
ing passions of the Portuguese, both amongst men 
and women. Amongst such people, controlled 
by such institutions, what chance of ultimate 
success can we possess agaiast the Erench ? 

voii. I 2 



10 LISBON TO SEVILLE Chap. II. 

1809 July 21. — We left Lisbon for Montemor by 
an excellent road, bordered by a vast number 
of crosses — signs of the murders whicb from time 
immemorial bad taken place along its track. 
At Montemor tbere was a Moorisb castle with 
extensive ruins, commanding a beautiful pro- 
spect. 

July 22. — At Elvas we bad mucb difficulty 
in entering tbe town. The Governor insisted on 
our presenting ourselves with great ceremony to 
him, as it was not only a fortified but a frontier 
town. "We crossed the little stream which separates 
Portugal from Spain at two o'clock, taking care 
to bathe according to tradition in its waters ; and, 
still travelling on an excellent road, with four 
or five horses to our carriage, we came to 
Albuera. Here the emissaries of the Junta 
attempted, but in vain, to seize our horses. 

July 24i. — At Monastereo, passing over ground 
every inch of which had recently been fought 
over by Prench and Spaniards, we overtook two 
French prisoners and a Spanish spy on their 
way to Seville to be hanged. This was the first 
place at which we had come in contact with 
the Spanish troops. They seemed fairly organised 
and disciplined. 

July 25. — We reached Seville, but could get 
no lodgings either at Mrs. Latchford's, or at 
the posada— the usual resorts of Englishmen — so 
took counsel with Mr. Wiseman, the British 
Consul, who recommended us to a lodging at tlie 



Chap. II. ARRIVAIi OF MARQUESS WELLESLET 11 

Calle de la Oruzea, 19, occupied by Josepha 1809. 
Beltram and lier sister, where we went supperless 
and dinner less to bed, all four in one little room. 
As tha Junta has its headquarters at Seville, the 
population has trebled in size. Though we had 
difficulty in getting lodgings, we had none in 
procuring servants, and eventually secured the 
services of a lieutenant in the Spanish service 
as our valet. 

July 29. — We reached Xeres, a fine large town 
of 50,000 inhabitants. We stayed with Mr. 
Gordon, an English wine-merchant, one of whose 
clerks was an officer in the Spanish army, but 
preferred drawing pay from Mr. Gordon to doing 
duty for his country. We went to several bull- 
fights ; and as we returned through the alameda 
in the evening, when the clock struck nine, all 
present stopped suddenly, pulled off their hats, 
and muttered a prayer. 

August \. — Cannons were fired for the victory of 
Cuesta and for Lord Wellesley's landing.^ Shortly 
after this we were joined by Gaily Knight and 
young Wellesley Pole. Of Cuesta's victory a 
Spaniard said to me that " the Erench attacked the 
English first, because they thought to rout them 
utterly, but they did not. The English behaved 
very well indeed, and Cuesta soon finished the 
business." Here we made the acquaintance of 

' The Marquess Wellesley was sent as Envoy Extraordinary to 
Madrid to endeavour to persuade the Spanish Government to make 
greater exertions in support of his brother and the British Army. 



12 GIBKALTAE AND SAEDINIA Chap. II. 

1809. Admiral Cordova, with whose daughter Byron 
contrived to fall in love at very short notice. 

August 3.— Leaving in the Hyperion (Captain 
Brodie), we reached Gibraltar on the 4th, and 
^Fletcher joined us on the 11th. We dined once 
or twice with General Castanos at Algeciras, 
though on the last occasion we did not arrive 
until the last course was on the table, a mistake 
for which we were well laughed at, not only 
by the guests, but by the servants, coram 
publico. 

August 1&. — ^We embarked on the TownsJiend 
packet for Cagliari the next day. Mr. Gait 
and I went to the Cappella Beale, where were 
the Royal Pamily, Emanuel III. with his Queen 
and Madame Beatrice, and the King's brother 
(his heir) and his wife, the latter very like our 
Duke of York. Byron, coming back from a ride 
in the country, describes it as neither agreeable 
nor attractive, having seen nothing worthy of 
notice but three heads nailed to a gallows. 

We dined one day with Mr. Hill, the English 
Minister. Some of the guests came into dessert 
after dinner, which Mr. Hill told us was a 
common custom here. The streets of Cagliari, 
which is fortified, are narrow and tolerably clean. 
The people of the higher class are dressed in 
Court dress, and the lower sort in leathern gar- 
ments with a broad leathern belt, into which 
is usually stuck a knife. The village people 
throw over this a short piece of black shaggy 



Chap. II. MALTA 13 

goatskin, with two holes for the arms. The whole 1809. 
country is still in a state of uncivilisation. The 
gentry will often steal their neighbours' flocks 
or shoot their horses, and no man travels outside 
a town without being armed. One gentleman the 
other day, after being convicted of sixteen murders, 
cut the throat of the son of a neighbour in whose 
house he had been brought up as a child, and 
on being outlawed for this crime was seen arm- 
in-arm with one of the Queen's equerries. 

The army is in a deplorable state — officers 
sufficient for at least 30,000 men, and yet only 
4,000 privates. Money is as scarce as provisions 
are cheap — beef twopence a pound, and a bushel 
of grapes for a dollar. Bread, which is exceed- 
ingly fine, is one third of the price in England. 

August 28. — We embarked for Sicily, and on 
the 31st anchored in the Grrand Harbour at Malta. 
At dinner with Mr. Ohabot, we met Sir A. Ball. 
The latter told us that Buonaparte, being com- 
plimented by one of the Knights on the ^posses- 
sion of Malta, replied, " Well, it is lucky there 
was some one within to open the gates to us." 

Mr. Spiridion Eorresti, who, when a boy, was 
under the charge of Gibbon, told us of Buonaparte 
making the King of Bavaria and the Viceroy 
of Italy stand behind his chair 

September 9. — We dined with General Oakes, 
who had been next to Nelson when he lost his eye. 
Mrs. Spencer Smith (the Elorence of "Ohilde 
Harold ") was one of the party. Lord Byron is. 



14 GREECE Chap. II. 

1809. of course, very popular with all' the ladies, as 
he is very handsome, amusing, and generous; 
but his attentions to all and singular generally 
end, as on this occasion, in rixce feminince. 

Mr. Forresti, who has travelled extensively, 
narrated a story of the son of the Suliote chief 
being taken before the son of Ali Pasha at 
Jannina. The latter addressed him with " Well, 
we have got you, and we will now burn you 
alive." " I know it," replied the prisoner ; " and 
when my father catches you he will serve you 
in the same fashion." 

This evening Byron told me that he was going 
to fight a Captain 0. C. C, having accepted a 
challenge from him for the' next morning at 
six o'clock. Eventually the warlike captain agreed 
to a reconciliation. 

September 19. — Left Malta, and on the 23rd 
got our first sight of Ancient Greece from the 
Channel betwixt Cephalonia and Zante. 

On the morning of the 24th, as we were enter- 
ing the Gulf of Corinth, we fell in with, chased, 
and captured, a small boat laden with currants, 
and, fitting her out as a privateer with a spare 
two-pounder, we went off in her with the surgeon, 
Mr. Swann, a midshipman, Mr. Barker, and ten 
men. 

The next day we fell in with a Turkish vessel 
of about 70 tons, to which we immediately gave 
chase. She fired upon us in return, one of our 
crew sitting next to me being shot, and another 



Chap. II. MOOKTA PASHA'S PALACE 15 

bullet passing witMn an inch of my ear. Eventu- 1809. 
ally, the wind dropping, we pulled up alongside 
and, jumping on board, her crew at once sur- 
rendered. "We brought her into Patras the next 
day, where Byron and I first landed on the 
Peloponnesus on September 26. We stayed but 
an hour or two, and went on to Prevesa. That 
evening we captured a boat from Ithaca, and 
a Turkish ship from Dulcigno. Lord Byron rum- 
maged her, but found nothing save some worth- 
less arms. We landed at Prevesa on September 28, 
and walked up to Ali Pasha's palace. 

September 29. — We visited the ruins of Nicopolis, 
but little remained ; and the bleating of sheep, 
tinkling of bells, and the croaking of frogs have 
entirely superseded the bustle and hum of this 
once populous and prosperous city. 

October 7. — -We went to the palace of Mookta 
Pasha, the eldest son of Ali, and were received 
by his son, aged ten years. After the usual cup 
of coffee we were taken the rounds of the palace. 
One of the ill-dressed, low-looking ruffians who 
attended the Bey, as he left the room, came up 
and kissed him most tenderly, with a strange 
mixture of familiarity and respect, which I did 
not look for in such a crew. Hanging round 
his neck was a charm, sacred to St. Nicolo, which, 
when I attempted to touch, he withdrew from my 
hand : a curious display of G-reek Christianity in 
a Mussulman. 

October 8. — During the continuance of the 



16 ziTZA CHAP. n. 

1809. annual fair all the shops in the town are shut up 
by the Vizier. It is attended not only by all the 
neighbouring and local merchants, but we found 
at it traders from so distant a place as Leipsic. 
The strange blending of Moslem and Christian 
habits is seen in the fact that much of the trade 
of the fair is concerned with the sale of wine. 
This is adulterated with water to increase its 
quantity, with pine- juice to increase the strength, 
and a little resin and lime to add a flavour. The 
result, to Europeans at least, can hardly be 
commended. 

October 12. — We visited the village of Zitza, 
which, like one of Virgil's goats, hangs literally 
upon the rocks, and is, perhaps, the most romantic 
spot in the world. The opposite mountain, clothed 
with wood and vineyards, and diversified by 
splashes of crimson-coloured rocks, makes a vivid 
object in the landscape. To the northward the 
hills of Sagovi, the mountains of Chimara, with 
the beautiful plain of the foreground, closes in 
the landscape, while eastward the windings of 
the Oalamas (Thyamis), enriched by the grand 
vineyards of the foreground, complete a picture 
as beautiful as any I know. The recollections 
of the loveliness of the day were tarnished by 
our experience at night of the innumerable fleas 
and dogs, who reminded us of their existence 
only too unceasingly. 

The village people were much astonished on 
our making them a present in return for their 



CfiAl'. II. THE RULE Oi" ALI l>ASflA 17 

hospitality. Ali Pasha permits no one to get i809. 
rich ; and though the monasteries pay no fixed 
tax, his demands upon them, which are not to 
he disregarded, seldom leave anything but the 
poorest pittance for the monks. All Albania 
pays one-tenth of its substance to the Grovern- 
ment, of which tithe Ali takes at least a quarter, 
besides extracting from the villages special dona- 
tions for his personal protection, while the whole 
of his soldiery can at any time quarter themselves 
on the inhabitants for an indefinite period, so 
long as they are neither robbed of their money 
nor of their wives. Notwithstanding All's ex- 
actions, the country is, however, on the whole, 
better for his rule. He builds bridges, clears 
the country of all robbers except himself, and to 
some extent even polices the towns. Every other 
pasha would have been as despotic and as power- 
ful ; perhaps hardly any one would have mitigated 
his villainy by All's reforms. 

We travelled, by way of Mosuree, to Dalvinachi, 
the last of the towns in Greece, and on October 15 
entered Albania proper. Staying a short time at 
Libo Chovo, with one of All's nephews, we came 
across a soldier carrying a young boy and girl 
to Tepelini as servants for the Vizier. He has 
the right to appropriate for his own purposes 
the families of all criminals, and, as the brother 
of these children had just been guilty of an 
assassination, they were being carried off to atone 
for the family misdoings. 

VOL. I 3 



18 tEPEIilNl Chap. II. 

1809. October 19. — We reached Tepelini, the native 
place of All. As we entered the town we passed a 
carriage of the Vizier's with one of his ladies re- 
turning from a drive. The coachman was driving 
four-in-hand a Vanglaise, with an Albanian foot- 
man beside him. We were assigned a very good 
apartment in the palace, the first appearance of 
which is romantic enough. The long gallery 
looked to us for all the world like the top of 
an English inn. 

October 21. — We paid our State visit to the 
Vizier, who made some observations on the small- 
ness of Lord Byron's ears, by which he averred to 
George, the servant, that he couM discover him to 
be of an ancient house. Many of the people, in 
spite of the lawlessness of the country, attained a 
great age : we saw one man of a hundred and a 
woman of a hundred and ten years ; a still older 
man is said to be hidden in the town. 

October 22. — Before we left to-day each of the 
servants brought us his " carrica," which is a list 
of the things furnished to strangers by the ofiice 
which the servant is in charge of, and for each 
of such articles used a donation has to be given. 
Amongst others was the Court jester, to whom, 
selon I'usage, we gave a zechin. 

We got back to Jannina in four days instead 
of the nine which it took us in going up there. 
Our host. Signer Niccolo, was delighted to see us. 
During our talk in the evening with him he 
told us that, at the siege of Barat, although 



Chap. II. JANNINA 19 

there were forty pieces of cannon in the castle, 1809. 
and the besiegers numbered at least 5,000, the 
total number of killed and wounded, after a hard 
two days' fighting, was three killed and two 
wounded. 

Jannina looks rich enough, and its Customs 
are said to be worth about 50,000 dollars annually. 
"We sent back to-day Lord Byron's rifle as a 
present to the Vizier, together with a letter in 
Greek written by friend Niccolo. We visited the 
remains of an amphitheatre, distant three or four 
hours, under the hills of Olinta. It is said to 
be the largest in Greece, and the remains are 
certainly very fine. The diameter of the arena 
I made to be sixty paces, with at least sixty-five 
rows of stone seats from the bottom to the top. 

The next day we called on Mahomet, son of 
All, who was with his brother, a boy of seven years 
old. The two children walked with us in the 
garden. As the younger was playing about in 
front of us, Mahomet said to him " Brother, 
remember you are in the presence of a stranger ; 
walk more sedately," and as we parted from 
them, the younger said to the elder, " Brother, 
do 'me the favour to stay with me a short time. 
I am quite alone," to which the other replied, 
" I shall be most happy to oblige you." Such 
is Moslem etiquette. 

Byron is all this time engaged in writing a 
long poem in the Spenserian stanza. 

November 3. — ^We travelled by St. Demetrius's 



20 VOLONDOEACHO Chap. II. 

1809. gate to Arta, which is conjectured to be on the site 
of the Ambracia of Ptolemy. The foundation 
stones of the fortress are of immense size — fourteen 
and fifteen feet long by five and six feet broad. 

November 7. — We sailed down the Gulf in which 
w'as fought the battle of Actium — not big enough 
for the manoeuvres of two of our modern frigates ! 

To-day we got on board a galliot of forty men 
and four guns, and sailed for Patras. In spite of 
a squall, we insisted on starting. The sailors 
at once ran below while the captain wrung his 
hands and wept, and Byron swore. The ship 
would most probably have been lost had it not 
been for the services of two or three Greeks, 
who eventually brought us to the Bay of Phanari. 

November 9. — People on the cliffs, as soon as 
their fear of our being English had subsided, 
brought two boats alongside. We eventually 
arrived at Volondoracho, where we were well 
treated by the Vizier's soldiers and people. From 
this place we got a beautiful view of Suli, three 
parts up the opposite mountain, which appeared 
well capable of costing any man — as it did Ali — 
thirteen years to take. The Suliotes, though con- 
quered, are not yet subdued, and they receive 
payment for their horses and services. From 
here we rode to Prevesa, and, near Nicopolis, 
saw the remains of a small theatre which we 
had missed on our previous visit. 

November 15. — Leaving last night, we reached 
Utraique this morning. Pifteen days ago some 



Chap. II. MISSOLONGHI 21 

brigands carried off a Turk and a Greek from the i809. 
Custom-house, the former they shot, and the latter 
was stoned to death. Our party, augmented, as 
a precaution, by some forty soldiers, took their 
dinner al fresco. ' The Albanians assembled in 
four parties round as many fires, dancing and 
singing, most of their songs turning on the exploits 
of robbers. One began thus : 

When we set sail, 

A band of thieves from Parga, 

We were in number sixty-two. 

The most polished of them, Bolu Pasha, had 
only fours years ago been a formidable local 
brigand, commanding something like two hundred 
men in the mountains of Hepacto. 

November 21. — Going by way of Machalas, Pro- 
dromes, and Natalico, we reached Missolonghi to- 
day. The town has about 5,000 inhabitants, who 
live chiefly on the proceeds of a large fishery, which 
extends some five or six miles into the entrance 
of the Gulf of Lepanto. Our Consul here took 
Byron for a new Ambassador, and insisted upon 
talking French to him, and entertaining us; but 
when we were detained a day longer than we had 
intended, by the incessant rain, his hospitality 
waned very quickly. 

November 23. — We reached Patras by water 
from Missolonghi. The mountains behind the 
town were covered with snow, the river still 
retains its ancient name of Leucate. The town 
has a considerable trade in currants, oranges, 



22 VOSTIZZA AND DELPHI Chap. II. 

1809. olives, and cotton from Lepanto.^ The forts, 
which appear to guard the town, are useless 
enough, the Morea fort being at present used as 
a sheep-pen. 

The legend that St. Andrew was crucified at 
Patras is testified to in the eyes of the locals 
by a yery curious chasm running from top to 
bottom of a hill on the opposite shore, said to be 
thus rent at the time of the martyr's death. 

December 7. — At Vostizza we got a glimpse of 
Mount Parnassus, now covered with snow. Here 
we stayed with Gogia Pasha, a son of Veli Pasha's 
Prime Minister. This young man is well 
educated, speaking Greek and Romaic, and reads 
Herodotus in the original. We got from him 
some account of Riga, who, twenty years ago, 
organised a revolution of the Greeks. He became 
quite enthusiastic on the subject, which seemed 
odd enough in a man in high employ under the 
Turks. 

December 14. — We reached Salona at midnight, 
and rode to Grissa, and thence, the next day, to 
Delphi. Climbing up the stony path, we found 
our first antiquity in a large rock, containing an 
excavation for a tomb. Above this was another 
immense block of singular shape, also torn from 
its place, lying at the foot of a small cave with 
three carefully excavated hollows. Just above 
we got the first view of Oastri, a small town of 
mud-built hovels, situated in a natural amphi- 
' Now known as Naupactus. 



Chap. II. THRONE OF THE PYTHONESS 23 

theatre, in "which may be seen rows of ancient i809. 
walls in an order so regular as to give the 
appearance of a vast theatre. These walls are 
composed of stones two-and-a-half feet in length, 
and a proportionate breadth and thickness. We 
were led to a cave in the hill in which cattle 
are now kept. It consists of an arched roof and 
three sides. Underneath the cave is a depth 
{fiaOv) which may have been the throne of the 
Pythoness, and which the inhabitants believe to 
be the sacred spot where the Greeks worshipped 
in the days of Apollo, the King of Greece ! 

We lodged in a house built entirely of ancient 
stones, engraved, but, unfortunately, undecipher- 
able. From one of the fountains of the village, 
believed to have been the sacred spring, we 
brought away a bottle of water, as also we did 
from the stream which flows from Parnassus. 
On two marble pillars supporting a balcony 
stretched from the chapel were scratched the 
names Aberdeen, 1803, and H. P. Hope, 1799, 
to which Byron and I added our own names. 
The only spot on which the Pythian games could 
possibly have been held is a circular flat, of 
no great extent, about a mile from Oastri, a little 
lower down the hill, where there are some remains 
of ancient walls. Divested of its ancient fame, 
the place would have nothing either alluring or 
romantic, but it seems exactly adapted for the 
purpose to which it undoubtedly was put, for 
the whole side of the mountain contains caverns 



24 THEBES Chap. 11. 

1809. in wMcli the treasures of the fugitive Greeks 
could be safely deposited. 

December 17. — We set out for Livadia, passing 
a stream which might have been Castalia, as it 
springs from a fountain at the foot of Parnassus. 
At Arachova we found a boy who had been to 
Malta, which the people of the locality regarded 
as the Ultima Thule. 

December 19. — "We stayed with the Archon 
Logotheti at Sudavia. Erom here we visited 
Chseronea and the cave of Trophonius. At Orcho- 
menos we found some marbles in a monastery and 
an inscribed tomb, together with some other re- 
mains not Hellenic. In the village of Romaico 
we came upon a statue of Pan. The women here 
string their hair with paras, and Vassali told us 
no woman could get a husband who did not 
bring a dowry of at least 1,000 piastres, there 
being so many more women in the country than 
males. 

Byron, with his sabre, cut off the head of a 
goose which shared our room with a collection of 
pigs and cows, and thus we got an excellent roast. 

December 20. — We set off at half-past one, 
and galloped at half -past four into Thebes, amidst 
downpours of rain. The ground is perfectly flat, 
there being only one small hill between Livadia 
and Thebes. The modern town is built on an 
ancient site, as tombs have been frequently dis- 
covered ; but there are no visible signs of the 
ancient city, and certainly none of its glory. We 



Chap. II. ARRIVAL AT ATHENS 25 

bathed in the fountain of Dirce, which stands a i809. 
little distance out of the town to the south-east. 

Being now out of All's territory, we had some 
little difiElculty with the authorities, both as to 
coach horses and lodgings, but we eventually got 
away on December 24 from Thebes, and passed Our 
Christmas Eve in a stable at Skourta, a miserable 
and deserted village. 

December 25. — We got our first view of Athens 
at Ohasia, where Signor Strani had advised us to 
make our half-way halt. The country was most 
romantic. Our road passed under the walls of an 
ancient fortress rising through the wood over a 
deep glen, which may have been one of the passes 
into Attica, while the steep hills opposite were 
clothed with noble pine-trees. Beyond this we 
caught a glimpse of the great mosque tipped with 
the last rays of the sun, and the road beyond, 
winding through plains cultivated with wood and 
vineyards and olive groves. "We are lodged at 
Athens with Madame Theodora Mayne. Shortly 
after our arrival, Logotheti, the British Vice- 
Consul, came to propose his son as our travelling 
companion. He was followed by Signor Lusieri, 
Lord Elgin's painter, who had much to say about 
the Elgin marbles and the French. We arranged 
during our stay at Athens to occupy two houses 
separated from each other by a wall, through 
which we opened a doorway; and thus we live 
in greater comfort than the ordinary accommoda- 
tion provides. 

voii. I 4 



26 ATHENS Chap. II. 

1809. The Waiwode is a well-mannered and well-in- 
formed man, and we followed up our call on him 
by sending the usual present of tea and sugar to 
the Turkish officer (the Disdar) in command of 
the fortress of the Acropolis. The unfortunate 
Governor is only too glad to have received our 
present, and willing to take another for the 
approaching Bairam. 

On our way there we had been insulted by a 
renegade Spaniard, of whom we complained to 
the Waiwode on our return. Our Spanish friend 
thereupon was bastinadoed with about fifty strokes 
on his feet, in Fletcher's presence. Whatever I 
may think of it at home, abroad autocracy has its 
advantages. 

1810. January 21. — ^We had a short tour in Attica, 
visiting, amongst other places, Oharvati ; but re- 
turned to Athens to-day to visit, on a lucky day, 
a cave on the south side of the Mountain Parnes. 
An old fellow undertook to guide us, and, after 
groping in on hands and knees, we lit torches and 
proceeded to explore the interior, which contained 
an innumerable number of subsidiary chambers. 
While engaged in this we discovered that the 
torches were becoming rapidly exhausted, and we 
returned to the entrance with all speed ; but our 
torches wasted more rapidly than we expected, 
and it was not until the last stick was actually 
consumed that we caught sight of daylio-ht. A 
few minutes later and we must have perished, as 
no one but the guide had any clue to the windings 



Chap. II. ATHENS TO SMTEKA 27 

of the labyrinth, and he had been reduced to isio 
speechless terror at the thought of our torches 
going out. « 

We passed a great deal of our time exploring 
both the environs of Athens and the neighbouring 
country, our constant companions being Mr. 
Pauvel and Mr. Roque. 

Besides the tour in Attica we went to Negro- 
ponte, the inhabitants of which have an evil 
reputation. The local saying is, " As bad as the 
Greeks of Athens, the Turks of Negroponte, and 
the Jews of Salonica." Christians are seldom 
seen here, and generally are very badly treated. 
As we, however, had letters from the commandant 
of Athens to the Pasha and the Aga, we were well 
received ; but it cost our silly, frightened Demetrius 
eighty piastres to escape from the hangers-on of 
the Pasha, who, fine-dressed gentlemen as they 
were, thought nothing of robbing him of that sum. 

February 28. — With Mr. Gait we went to the 
Parthenon to view more closely the bas-reliefs, 
two large pieces of which have fallen since our 
last visit. 

March 8. — We said adieu to Athens on the 5th, 
and went by the Fylades to Smyrna. Darwin^ 
said that the shoals in the Gulf of Smyrna have 
all appeared within the last few years, and that 
there is every reason to suspect that in time the 
Gulf will entirely be filled up. We are to stay 
at Smyrna with Mr. Werry. In the evening 

^ Erasmus Darwin, grandfather of Charles. 



28 SMYRNA AND CONSTANTINOPLE Chap. II. 

1810. we both, with Captain Perguson and Mr. Darwin, 
went to call on a pretty Miss Maraschini. When 
they reached the drawing-room door, Byron and 
Darwin ran downstairs, leaving Captain Ferguson 
and me to pay our call alone — a most unusual 
trait on Byron's part. 

Bain has not fallen for a long time, and all 
classes have been praying for rain — three days 
being assigned to the Turks, three to the Greeks, 
and three to the slaves; and they have even 
contrived, by separating the lambs from the 
sheep, to make the former bleat while the ortho- 
dox Mussulmans are also imploring for rain. 

March 11. — Mrs. Werry actually cut off a lock 
of Byron's hair on parting from him to-day, and 
shed a good many tears. Pretty well for fifty-six 
years at least. 

May 3. — We left in the Salsette frigate. Captain 
Bathurst, and went by Mitylene to the Dardanelles. 
Byron and Mr. Ekenhead swam across the Helles- 
pont to-day. Ekenhead performed this feat in an 
hour and five minutes, and Byron in an hour 
and ten minutes. They set off two miles above 
Europe Castle, and came out at least a mile below 
the Dardanelles. 

May 14.— We landed at Constantinople, being 
towed against the strong current to a point under 
the walls of the Seraglio garden. In the evening 
we crossed to Pera and put up at an excellent inn, 
getting the best dinner we have had since we left 
London. 



Chap. II. TWO PROCESSIONS 29 

Called the next day on Mr. Canning,^ a pleasant isio. 
young man with a had voice. 

May 20. — A funeral procession, preceded by six 
men in German livery, passed our doors. The 
hody was that of a priest, with the face and 
hands uncovered, and the eyes open. The car 
which the hody rested upon was covered all over 
with crosses and adorned with flowers. No objec- 
tion to this Christian procession seemed to he 
taken by the Turks. Later in the evening of 
the same day another procession passed me. In 
the centre of this were two men carrying a pole 
from which hung two kettles. Following on this 
were others, a stick in each hand, the rear being 
brought up by a man whose dress was covered 
with large bell-like buttons. The janissaries at 
the gate of the Ambassador stood up with the 
greatest attention and reverence as the procession 
passed. I subsequently found out that these were 
the kettles of the janissaries and their cook, to 
which, by all accounts, they pay much more 
attention and respect than to their standards or 
their commanding officers. 

Note by Lord Byron. P.S. — Constantinople. 

"The whole distance Ekenhead and myself 
swam was more than four miles. The current 
very strong and cold. Some large fish near us 
when half across. We were not fatigued, but 
a little chilled. Did it with little difficulty. 
May 26. 

" Btron." 

' Afterwards Lord Stratford de Eedcliffe. 



30 CONSTANTINOPLE Chap. II. 

1810. May 21. — We paid a visit to the bazaars and 
the Seraglio, the latter surrounded with high and 
gloomy walls, with niches on each side of the 
gate, where are exposed the heads of criminals, 
whose bodies are thrown carelessly enough on to 
a dunghill close by. Looking through a grating, 
we saw the sepulchres of the Sultans Mustapha 
and Selim, crowned with red-and-yellow turbans. 
The streets are clean, in regular order, and well 
built ; but the bazaars and bezasteins are not yery 
striking buildings to one acquainted with the 
shops and wealth of London. 

May 28. — So far we have dined every night 
with the Ambassador ; but to-day some difficulty 
has arisen as to Byron's precedence in an official 
procession which we all made to the Government 
House. As Canning refused to walk behind him, 
Byron went home. The rest of us set out, preceded 
by about one hundred officers in two rows, twenty 
of our own marines headed by Mr. Lloyd, and 
Mr. Ekenhead on horseback ; a dozen servants 
in yellow and gold, eight or ten pages in red, 
with fur caps, immediately preceded Mr. Adair, 
who was on horseback, Mr. Canning, Captain 
Bathurst, Mr. Morier, the Consul, and myseK, 
with several gentlemen of the Levant Company.' 
We eventually arrived at Top-Kaneh. It took 
Byron quite three days to get over this trivial 
contretemps. 

June 16. — Mr, Canning descanted very feelingly 
on the humiliation which Christian missionaries 



Chap. II. A MATTER OP SALUTES 31 

have to endure. He said also tliat tlie presents isio. 
of shawls and cloths sent to the Embassy in return 
for the gifts sent by George III. on the conclusion 
of peace, amongst which was a dagger for the 
Sultan costing 30,000 piastres, were old and had 
been darned and washed, and are typical enough 
of the financial difficulties under which Turkey 
is at the present time submerged. I also heard 
of the utter inefficiency of Arbuthnot and 
Poole. 

J%ly 2. — To-day is the anniversary of our de- 
parture from England, so we rode down to the 
valley of Sweet Waters and afterwards break- . 
fasted with Canning, who gave me to read a short 
didactic on the pleasure of eating much, and also 
an official account, written by himself, of the 
three late revolutions here. 

July 14. — Byron and I left Constantinople in 
the Salsette frigate, coming to anchor the next 
day just above the Castle of the Dardanelles. A 
great dispute arose between the frigate and the 
fort as to which should salute first. The differ- 
ence was adjusted by Mr. Adair going on shore 
the following morning to visit the Pasha, the 
frigate saluting him as he left the ship. The 
Governor of the town, a very Ealstaffian person, 
asked us how we liked the Sultan's present palace. 
We replied that so much of it as we saw we liked 
very much. "Ah," said he, "for fifteen years I 
swept it out," 

July 17. — Arrived at the port of Zea. Went 



32 MALTA AND CAGLIARI Chap. II. 

1810. on board with Lord Byron and suite. Took leave, 
non sine lacrymis, of this singular young person, 
on a little stone terrace at the end of the bay, 
dividing with him a little nosegay of flowers ; the 
last thing perhaps that I shall ever divide with 
him. 

July 27. — I reached Malta. Here I met Mr. 
Bruce and Lady Hester Stanhope, a masculine 
woman, who says she would as soon live with 
packhorses as with women. I m.et her again the 
next day at dinner. She seems to me a violent, 
peremptory person. We went together to the 
Opera, at the end of the first act of which a 
collection of dollars was made from spectators for 
the benefit of the players. 

August 5. — I left Malta to-day, and arrived at 
Cagliari on August 14, Here we found Lucien 
Buonaparte with his wife and family and a large 
suite of forty persons on board an American ship. 
He is a handsome man ; he wears spectacles, and 
said he wishes to go either to America or to 
England. He declares that he was oflEered either 
to be made King of Rome or to leave the Empire. 
He chose the latter, and went to Oivita Vecchia, 
whence he asked for passports to Cagliari. The 
King of Sardinia resolved to send Lucien to 
Malta. He declares that if he is sent back to 
Civita Vecchia he will certainly endeavour to 
escape thence, as he cannot live under his brother's 
government. 

October 20. — On August 24 we fell in with the 



Chap. U. return HOME 33 

British fleet off Toulon, where I dined with the isio. 
Admiral, Sir E. Cotton, and a Mr. Clifford, a 
natural son of the Duke of Devonshire, and the 
very image of Lord Hartington. After passing a 
few days at Cadiz I reached Ealmouth on October 
15, and thence drove to my home near Bath. 



VOli. I 



CHAPTER III 

Note.— There is a gap in the original book, " Recollections of a 
Long Life," between October 1810, and the summer of 1813. As 
the Diaries contain some interesting passages relating to this period, 
a few extracts from them are appended by the Editor in order to 
fill up the gap. 

1811. February 4. — Called on my father at 11, 
Manchester Buildings, Westminster, and there — 
after a difference of five years' standing — recon- 
ciled to him hy shaking hands for one minute. 
This day to be marked with a white stone. 

June 6. — My father to-day got a letter from my 
brother Benjamin, who gave an account of the 
conduct of his regiment,, the 57th, at the battle of 
Albuera. They went into battle 572 rank and 
file, 1 lieut. -colonel, 1 major, 7 captains, 18 
subalterns. They fought four hours, and then 
drew up behind a hill to count numbers. They 
were then 118 rank and file and six subalterns. 
Benjamin and another officer were the only ones 
not scratched and without a hole in their clothes. 
The brigade went out of the field commanded by 
a junior captain and the regiment commanded by 
a junior lieutenant. Benjamin first commanded 
the light company, and then held the colours, 
through which were eighteen shot-holes. 



Chap. III. KETTJRN OP BTRON 35 

July 1 . — Breakfasted with Matthews ' at Chester- isii. 
ton. Dined at five at a great dinner given by the 
College of Trinity to the Duke of Gloster, and 
four hundred present. Turtle, venison, etc., a 
lively day. Matthews, Baillie, Bankes, Ponsonby, 
and myself, got up Dr. Parr's health as he passed 
us, and drank him with enthusiasm. 

July 2. — Took my full M.A. degree in the 
Senate House. Dined at Pellows' table in hall — ■ 
went in to combination. Dined with Bankes in 
Trinity Hall — met Monk Lewis.^ 

July 8. — Went to Covent Garden — Mrs. Jordan 
in Country Girl — a melange of shocking absurdi- 
ties. . . . Heard from Byron. 

July 16. — I heard to-day from Byron, by a 
letter written at Malta, appointing a meeting 
at Sittingbourne, to which place I went the next 
day, where 'I met my friend after an absence 
of one year. We spent the next two days in 
visiting Canterbury and the neighbourhood, and 
I left Canterbury on the 19th, after having parted 
with my dear friend.^ 



' Charles Skinner Matthews was a scholar of Trinity College, 
Cambridge, and a contemporary and friend of Byron and Hobhouse. 
At this time he was a fellow of Downing. He was drowned in, 
the Cam in the following month of August. 

' Matthew Gregory Lewis, 1775-1818, was for a short time in the 
Diplomatic Service, but inheriting large estates in the West Indies, 
he left the public service. His book " Ambrosio, or the Monk," 
published in 1795, earned him the sobriqttet of Monk Lewis. 

' In 1811 Mr. Hobhouse joined the Militia as Captain in Colonel 
Lemon's regiment. He went with the regiment to Ireland on 
August 23, 1811, was quartered at Enniscorthy, and remained there 
until February 17, 1812, when he returned to England., 



36 liONDON Chap. III. 

1811. August 7. — Received from S. B. Davies ^ the 
fatal news of the violent death of my oldest 
and best friend, C. S. Matthews. He was drowned 
in the Cam on Saturday last. Wrote as well as 
I could to S. B. Davies, to Lord Byron, and 
David Baillie. Alas, alas, who is there left ? 

During the month of November I prepared, in 
frequent consultation with Byron, my work on 
our travels in Albania, the proofs of which I 
got by the end of the year. 

1812. February 19. — Lord Byron made his maiden 
speech to-day on the Nottingham Eiot Bill. 

I dined to-day at the Hoyal Society's Club, 
sitting next to Sir B. Bickerton. 

Heber told me a capital jest of Frederick North 
at Algiers. North asked the Dey permission to 
see his women. After some parley the Dey said, 
" He is so ugly, let him see them all." After 
most of his speeches to the Dey, North observed 
that the latter always said " Kedab," so at last 
he asked for the translation, when it appeared 
that its meaning was " damned lie." Heber also 
added that when Lord Portsmouth and the Duke 
of Grafton (who were concerned in a duel) were 
going in a hackney coach to Wimbledon for the 
purpose, they met an empty hearse, which Lord 
Portsmouth stopped, saying, "Hullo, wait there 
a minute or two and I will give you a fare." 

' Scrope Berdmore Davies (1V83-1852) was also a contemporary of 
Byron and Hobhouse at Cambridge. He was a scholar at King's 
College, and later a prominent figure in London society. Byrou 
ajppointed him one of hjs e?;ecutor^ undej his will of 1817. 



Chap, til Raphael's cartoons 37 

March 11. — Went down to Whitton, where 1812. 
Mr. Westmacott dined and examined my marbles. 
He says I have done well, and that the marbles 
are of the third class.^ 

March 14. — Went to Hampton Court ; saw the 
cartoons. Nothing in the world more impressive. 
Mr. Hollo way, the engraver, expounded them to 
us. His labour has been immense — he has been 
twelve years at five of the cartoons. His finished 
sketches in Erench crayons, from which the 
engraving is finished, are superior to the en- 
gravings. A nobleman asked him if these crayon 
picti|ires could be purchased, and offered a 
thousand pounds for the seven. Holloway said 
he would take that sum if be had made up his 
mind to starve the remainder of his life in a 
garret. The seven are worth £10,000. 

He is assisted by two nephews-in-law. Garrick 
said that he should produce a masterpiece if he 
could die like Ananias. The cartoons were found 
by Rubens in Elanders, 

March 18. — Dined with the Literary Fund. 
Met Salt, the Abyssinian, who told me that the 
Haas laughed at the piety of an old Christian priest 
who would go to prayer at Court, saying he is 
the best old fellow in the world. Religion is 
out of fashion with the great in Abyssinia, but 
some of the priests are truly pious and primi- 
tive. 

March 20.— Went to a ball at Lord Mount 
^ Now in the British Museum, 



38 LONDON Chap. III. 

1812. Morres. Danced — notMng more dull than the 
heau monde. 

April 21.— Dined at Reilly's — Baillie with me. 
Stayed up all night .at the House of Lords. 
Debate on the Catholic question. Heard Byron, 
who kept the House in a roar of laughter. Lord 
Grenville the best. Lord Wellesley mentioned 
as a fact that the first resistance at Cadiz to 
Buonaparte had been made by the Pope's nuncio. 

April 24. — Dined with Lord Lansdowne. Met 
Lord and Lady Douglas, Lord and Lady Down- 
shire, Lord and Lady Dunmore, Lord Arch. 
Hamilton, Lord Pitzharris, Mr. Stewart, Captain 
Waldegrave, etc. Learnt not one thing, except 
.that Larcher^ calls Volney^ in his Herodotus 
always by the name of chasse bceuf. 

May 2. — Dined at Stephen's Coffee House. Sir 
Prancis Burdett told us that Home Tooke, when 
advised to take a wife, said, " With all my heart ; 
whose wife shall it be ? " 

May 3. — Dined at Lord Lansdowne's. Met 
Sir S. and Lady Bomilly, also Rogers and Dr. 
Davy. Sir S. Romilly speaks but little — Rogers 
always trying to shine. Went in the evening to 
Lady C. Howard's. 

May 11. — I heard at half-past six that Perceval 
had been shot on the steps going into the liouse 
of Commons, by a man who stepped up to him 

' P. H. Larcher, Professor of Greek Literature in the College de 
France, published in 1786 a translation of Herodotus. 

* Constantin Chasseboeuf, Comte de Volney, wrote a Chronology 
of Herodotus, 18Q8.. Was roadg ^ Count, of the Empire by Napoleon.. 



Chap. III. MURDER OF PERCEVAL 39 

and. said, " I am John James Bellingham, a 1812. 
merchant of Liverpool," and. shot him through 
the heart. W. Smith was there, and said, "Who 
has got a pistol amongst us ? " At that moment 
a man, whom he took to he Wilberforce, reeled 
up to him and fell at his feet, just calling out 
"Murder." Smith picked him up and took him 
into the Vote Office, where he died in two minutes. 

Called on my father at half -past eleven ; found 
him in bed at No. 11, and asleep. Old people 
certainly feel little ; and yet he lost more than 
I by this event. 

May 15. — Bellingham's trial going on spoilt 
our party. Bellingham convicted. 

May 16. — Dined with Byron at the Clarendon. 

May 18. — Went to London and returned with 
my father to Whitton. Bellingham hanged — died 
like a hero. His answer to the sheriff : "I hope 
I feel as a man ought to do " — noble. 

May 20. — Went to the House of Commons. A 
strange bustle about the formation of a new 
Ministry — Liverpool to be the man ; negotiations 
with Wellesley unsuccessful. Stuart Wortley, 
the same who abashed Ponsonby the other day, 
gives notice he shall move to address the Prince 
to form a strong and efficient Ministry. 

May 21. — Wortley's motion is carried by four. 
Vansittart vacated his seat to become Chancellor, 
on the promise of Sir E. BuUer to make Vander 
Heyden vacate. He then, himself, together with 
Vansittart, voted against Ministers. 



40 LONDON Chap. III. 

1S12. May 26.— Wellesley can do nothing ; neither 
Liverpool nor Grenville will listen. Old Minis- 
ters in interregnum — report they will stay in. 

May 27. — Lord Moira sent for. Whigs coming 
in at last. 

June 2. — Whigs not coming in. 

June 4. — Set out with Byron and Captain 
Gr. Byron, his heir, to Newstead. Slept at Market 
Harborough. 

June 9. — At Newstead ; had letters from pater, 
one telling me Moira was Minister, the other that 
Liverpool had, after all, come in. 

June 10.— ;-A page came from Lady Caroline 
Lamb, with letters for Byron. 

June 13. — Arrived in London after a week of 
delirium. 

June 16. — Dined at the Grecian. Went to the 
pit of Covent Garden to see Liston act Romfeo. 

June 17. — Dined at Reilly's. This night Sheri- 
dan was stopped in his speech by illness. Passed 
the evening and night at Mr. Grattan's. He is 
nothing in conversation. Lady Crewe a superior 
woman. 

June 20. — Dined with my cousin, Henry Hob- 
house, in 16, Hunter Street, Brunswick Square, 
where I met Bichard Heber and James Boswell, a 
son of Bozzy, a most entertaining man. He agreed 
that Ellenborough was like Johnson in his way of 
poking out his sentences at the corner of his fore- 
head. 

Sastres told me that Dr. Brocklesby, who at- 



Chap. III. LADY OXFORD 41 

tended Johnson in his last illness, although an 1812. 
infidel, was forced by Johnson to kneel when the 
latter prayed. Brockleshy would not always 
finish the prayer, and Johnson kept turning round 
in a violent rage, exclaiming : " Why will you not ' 
say, Amen ? " 

June 22. — Dine at Reilly's. At night went to 
Lady Oxford's ball — pleasant night. 

June 24. — Dined at Lord Oxford's, met Sir 
F. Burdett, Rogers, Monk Lewis, etc. Lady Jane 
Harley a delightful creature, but un peu libre. 
She said that Paget was quite the coq de village 
at Vienna. Lady Oxford most uncommon in her 
talk, and licentious — uncommonly civil; made a 
push to get me into the Hampden Club. Eor the 
first time in my life knew how to put off a 
question and civilly say, No. 

June 27. — What to do, or what not to do about 
my commission in the Miners, may the gods 
confound me worse than I am daily confounded if 
I know. Meus pater wants me off with all speed ; 
but feeling convinced of the truth of the old 
adage, " Out of sight out of mind," and seeing that 
the same person did the other day leave unread 
for some time a letter from his son abroad about 
whom he did once so much talk, I will not, if 
possible, consent to be absent from the spot where 
I may keep the recollection of others alive. 
Everything I see confirms me in my opinion of 
aged persons. As to myself, I should certainly be 
in love with one of the miscellany if I had £6,000 

voii. I 6 



42 LONDON CHAP. III. 

1812. a year — life might then be a little tolerable ; but as 
it is without any affectation or deceit (for why be 
affected and deceitful to myself ?) mitia tarda — 
ruunt ingrataque tempora — I have lost all relish 
for books that used once to delight me. What 
is the use of either reading or writing ? You 
labour and labour on, and then you die without 
being yourself benefited by all your pains ; and 
if you benefit others, without hearing of the little 
good you have done — nothing but praise or the 
expectation of gaining it one day or the other, 
ever makes me happy ; yet what is the use of 
being praised ? It does not make me wiser or 
better ; it is, after all, only one man's opinion about 
another, which is obtained oftener by interest or 
good luck than by real merit; and if by real 
merit, what then ? Does my real merit make me 
richer or taller ? Does it prevent me from rotting 
partially whilst above ground and rotting alto- 
gether when under it ? Does it exempt me from 
any of the conditions of humanity, or leave me 
anything but what it found me — a mere grub, 
whose annihilation would have a ten-thousand- 
millionth less effect on the system of the world, 
and be less perceived than the evaporation of a 
single dfop of water from the surface of the 
ocean — aye, the extinction of whose globe and of 
all the heavens in which it revolves would be abso- 
lutely unknown and unfelt except by one small 
spot in the boundless regions of the universe ? 
Herschel's reflector has shown him stars whose 



Chap. III. MKS. SIDDONS'S FAREWELL ' 43 

light has been two millions of years reaching this 1812. 
earth. Yet even these reflections on the unim- 
portance of man show a man's importance to 
himself; for why should such an insignificant 
being think so much about himself as to make 
all these remarks ? To this I reply that, of all 
worldly things — and the world itself is compara- 
tively so trifling a consideration — it is as well to 
think about myself, in whom I know that I am 
interested, as about any other mundane object, 
which may not at all concern me. If the whole 
creation is a speck, all that I need think of it 
is that upon the speck I am found, and must do 
the best I can for myself as long as this fact 
shall exist. 

Dined with Sir Francis Burdett, a very large, 
and not at all a pleasant party. . . . 

June 29, Monday. — Saw Mrs. Siddons take her 
leave in the character of Lady Macbeth ; she made 
a farewell poetical address written by Horace 
Twiss ; play stopped after her last scene. Pit 
waved hats. I went into the pit ; almost killed 
getting in. House filled from top to bottom with 
all the rank of London. Sheridan in the orchestra. 
Mrs. Siddons affected, but Kemble more so. 
Never go in pit again. 

June 30. — Heard bad news from Byron this day 
relative to his affair. Came home and found an 
odd note from Lady Bessborough. 

July 2. — Called on Lady Bessborough — a very 
curious scene, 



44 LONDON Chap. III. 

1812. July 3. — Received a note from Lady Bess- 
borough. Went to Byron, who agrees to go out 
of town. 

July 6. — Arrived in London ; found on my 
table most strange letters from Melbourne House. 

July 8. — I called on Hanson, and had a full 
account of Lord Byron's affairs. Poor Newstead ! 
Things are bad enough in that quarter, and I 
can only lament my incapacity to help. Byron 
went with me to my father's to-day at Whitton. 

July 16. — ^Walked, by desire, to Lady Bess- 
borough's, Cavendish Square ; in midst of our 
conversation in comes Lady 0. Lamb, who talked 
of Lady Bessborough and myself looking guilty. 
Here's a pass for the world to come to ! 

July 19. — Dined with Lord Byron and Sinclair. 
The latter spoke of an interview he had with 
Buonaparte at TJlm a few days before the battle 
of Jena. , Buonaparte, who was in his night-cap 
and gown, with a cup of tea in his right hand, 
was accompanied by Count Proberg and Berthier. 
Berthier, on hearing from Sinclair that the 
Prussians did not expect the Prench in that 
quarter, exclaimed, " Ce sont des perruques les 
JBronsvickes — Us seront furieusement trotn'pes." 
He then inquired where Mar^chal MuUendorf 
was, as Murat, to whom he had first sent, had 
also done. Sinclair observed a pointed incivility 
in all the Germans, with a totally opposite be- 
haviour in the Prench. He fell in with the 
advance of the Prench army as they were pillag- 



Chap. III. NEWSTEAD NOT SOLD 45 

ing a train of baggage-waggons left by the 1812. 
Prussians. They and. tbe Erench were encourag- 
ing the peasants — Frenez tout, mes enfants, ex- 
ceptez seulement le vin et I'argent. 

July 23. — Dined at Lord Oxford's. Met Bur- 
dett, Ward (called " Conversation "), Lady Cork 
(Johnson's dunce), Baron Trip, a Mr. Fox, son 
of Stephen Eox, a Miss White, Thornton, Bank 
director, Westall the painter. Lord Arch. Hamil- 
ton. A very dull party. Mr. W.'s ascendency 
given to him, because he takes it. He talked 
to Baron Trip about Lady Hardwicke and Lady 
Heathcote. Lady J. Harley told me she could 
say all Shakespeare by heart — she is a most 
surprising girl, and is a good instance of the 
flexibility -of female abilities. 

August 14, Friday. — Went to Garroway's CofPee 
House to the sale of Newstead Abbey by auction 
by a Mr. Eairbrother, where, having just secured 
myself with Byron, I bid. twelve times, and left off 
at 113,000 guineas for the large lot, which was 
bought in at 113,500 guineas, B. having fixed 
£120,000 as the price. The second was bought 
in at 13,100 guineas. Never having done the like 
before, I was, before the thing began, in a complete 
fever, but was told, by Hanson, B.'s solicitor, that 
I came off most admirably. I had just then only 
one pound one shilling and sixpence in the world. 

September 6, — Walked down to Cavendish's. 
Walked about the gardens of Palladian Chiswick, 
the Duke of Devonshire's. 



46 OSWESTRY : WHITTON OrrAP. III. 

1812. September 14. — Visited Shakespeare's house. 
September 16. — Walked from Birmingham to 

within a mile of Wolverhampton, when the Union 
coach from the Dog Inn took us up. Arrived at 
Shrewsbury, which being full of races, walked on 
to Eadcliffe, a village ten miles off, and slept in 
a pot-house. 

September 17. — Walked to Oswestry, and thence 
by Chirk and the grand aqueduct of Pontysyllty 
to Llangollen, about fourteen miles. 

September 18. — Went through Lady Elizabeth 
Butler and Miss Ponsonby's grounds, but did not 
see the ancient pair. 

1813. January 9. — Dined with my father at Whitton. 
Amongst others. Lord Sidmouth, who told me that 
he had seen the great Lord Chatham sit for an 
hour and a half, while Gallini, the dancing-master, 
taught his sons their steps. William used to be 
refractory, and Lord Chatham would shake him 
by the lapel and bid him attend. He used then to 
make Hiley Addington show him, on William, 
who knelt down, how Warton flogged the boys 
at Winchester. The first person Lord Chatham 
spoke to after his fit in the House of Lords was 
Dr. Addington, and to him, in spite of all en- 
treaties, and before he said anything else, he 
instantly repeated what he had intended to say 
to the Duke of Richmond, finishing his speech 
sitting up in bed, with great vehemence of words 
and gesture. 

Lord Sidmouth asserted that WiUiara Pitt had 



Chap. III. BAEGAIN WITH CAWTHOEN 47 

no notion of the resources of the country. He has I8i3. 
piles of Chatham's letters. 

January 12. — Got a picture of Lady Oxford 
from Mrs. Mee. Lord B.'s money for it. 

Involved in a bargain with Oawthorn, who, 
though he has sold all my first edition of "Travels," 
does not like to agree to give me a sum of money 
for the copyright. Dallas has sent me his works. 
Poor stuff, his Aubrey, and his dedication to Byron, 
sneaking, though assuming. 



CHAPTER IV 

1813. Book. — When my " Travels " were published, 
the wish to travel again came over me, and 
in the summer of 1813, having procured a 
courier's passport and being furnished with 
despatches for the Crown Prince of Sweden, I 
sailed from Harwich to Gothenborg; then I 
crossed Scania, and went from Helsingborg over 
to Stralsund. 

Bernadotte, Crown Prince of Sweden, was at 
Stralsund in command of the Swedish army, and 
after delivering my despatches to him I was 
desired to dine with him. When I told him 
that the Danes had declared war on him, he 
smiled and said, " Nous leur rendrons tout cela" 
— we will give them as good as they bring. I 
remarked nothing particular about him, except 
that when I first saw him his hair was in curl 
papers, and that at his Court dinner the salt- 
cellar next to him was secured by a lock and 
key. On remarking this to my next neighbour, 
he said, "I suppose you know what happened 
to a late Crown Prince ? " I did not know, but 
was afterwards told that he was generally supposed 
to have been poisoned. 

48 



Chap. IV. PRINCESS LOUISA OP PRUSSIA 49 

Leaving Stralsund, I passed by Strelitz, and isis. 
delivered despatches to the Duke of Cumber- 
land. This was at two o'clock in the morning. 
I was shown into his room, and he jumped 
out of bed to receive them. A more magnifi- 
cent frame of man was never seen. His Royal 
Highness asked me to stay a day or two at 
Strelitz, but I went on, without stopping, to 
Berlin. 

At Berlin I formed an acquaintance with the 
Princess Louisa of Prussia, married to Prince 
Radzivil. She was a highly accomplished and 
most amiable Princess, much beloved by her 
family and those whom she honoured with her 
notice. The English in those days were favour- 
ably received in Grermany, particularly at Berlin, 
and I was permitted on more than one occasion 
to join the small circle at the tea-table of Her 
Royal Highness. 

The "Memoirs of the Margravine of Bareith " 
had been recently published, and were the sub- 
ject of much controversy in England. I ventured 
to ask the Princess whether they were to be 
depended upon. She replied, " As far as I know, 
I believe they may." 

Sir Charles Stewart, afterwards Lord London- 
derry, was at that time corresponding General 
with the King of Prussia. He was a great 
favourite both with Prussians and Englishmen, 
and I had reason to be proud of his civilities ; 
amongst other attentions he was kind enough 

VOL. I 7 



50 PRTTSSIA-ATTSTMA Chap. IV. 

1813. to make his stables available for me, and by the 
help of his horses I visited the sights in the 
neighbourhood of the city. At his hospitable 
table I commenced my long intimacy with Sir 
Robert Wilson. 

I left Berlin in company with my friend Mr. 
Douglas Kinnaird, and the suspension of arms, 
commonly called the Armistice of Pleisnitz, 
signed on June 4, being then in force, we 
travelled by Frankfort-on-the-Oder and Breslau 
to the headquarters of the Emperor Alexander. 
We arrived on July 2, and remained there 
until the 8th of the month. It was a busy time 
with us ; we were introduced to the Emperor 
Alexander at his quarters at Peterswaldau ; we 
dined with General Potemkin and his officers at 
Long Belo ; we also dined with Lord Cathcart, 
at whose quarters I made acquaintance with Sir 
Hudson Lowe. 

I saw something of others, famous in that day, 
such as Count Stadion, Baron Stein, Sir Erancis 
D'lvernois, and others of less note. Sir Robert 
Wilson lent us horses, and we rode to take a 
look at the encampments of the allies and at 
the position of the Erench army in the opposite 
distance. 

We left headquarters on July 8, and, sending 
our carriage by the high road, rode on Sir R. 
Wilson's horses to the fortress of Silberberg. 
Our object was to visit an English gentleman, 
a prisoner there, confined at the recommenda- 



Chap. IV. GLATZ TO VIENNA 51 

tion of Lord Cathcart. This was R. Semple, isis, 
author of " Travels in Portugal, Spain, and the 
Levant." I had heard of him at Smyrna from 
Dr. Darwin, and, upon seeing him, was enabled 
to speak to his identity, which Lord Cathcart, 
and Mr. Jackson, our envoy to Berlin, had 
disputed, and thus caused his arrest. I wrote 
to Lord Cathcart in his behalf, and my com- 
panion, Mr. Kinnaird, wrote to Sir Charles 
Stewart. Mr. Semple, shortly after our visit, 
was released. He published an account of his 
imprisonment. 

"We rode from Silberberg to Wartha-on-the- 
Neisse, and thence to Glatz, where we slept. The 
next morning we visited the citadel, which was 
reckoned impregnable, and was a State prison ; at 
least there were three prisoners of rank there at 
the time of our visit — one a General of Engineers, 
another a Count, and a Baron who had been 
arrested a few days before our arrival. 

From Glatz we had intended to go to Prague, 
but were obliged to alter our course in the direc- 
tion of Vienna, as the passport given us by 
Barclay de Tolly, Commander-in-Chief of the 
Russian army, and vised by Count Stadion, made 
no mention of Prague. Accordingly we travelled 
by Brunn to Vienna, and settled ourselves for 
some time in that capital. As the Conferences 
at Prague were still nominally continued, although 
the real business was never even begun, hopes 
were entertained that Napoleon would conclude 



52 VIENNA Chap. IV. 

1813. peace upon the terms proposed by Austria. But 
Napoleon did not want peace, he wanted delay ; 
and the truce, prolonged beyond the time origi- 
nally fixed, having expired, Austria, on August 
10, joined the allies, and on the 19th of the 
month appeared the declaration of war with 
Prance. It was a very long document, written 
by Gentz. On August 21 Prince Schwarzen- 
berg issued his address on taking the command 
of the allied armies. The renewed campaign 
opened with the battle of Dresden, which the 
Prench claimed as a victory. Then it was that 
Moreau received his death-wound. Vandamme, 
at the head of 40,000 men, advanced into Bohemia, 
but was resisted by the Russian Greneral Osterman 
with only 8,000 long enough to allow the main 
army of the allies to come to his assistance. This 
was at the battle of Kulm, the turning-point of 
the war. The Prench were completely defeated, 
and Vandamme was taken prisoner. 

My companion, Mr. Kinnaird, who had left 
Vienna to return home, was in the battle, and 
wrote an account of it to me. Lord Walpole 

' The terms oflFered were these : Dissolution du Grand-Duche de 
Varsovie ; reconstitution de la Prusse au moyen d'une partie con- 
siderable de ce Grand-Duch6 et de quelques portions des Provinces 
Anseatiques ; restitution h TAUemagne des Villes Libres de Liibeck, 
de Brgme, de Hambourg ; abolition de la Confederation du Ehin ; 
retrocession k I'Autriche de I'lllyrie et des portions de la Pologne qui 
lui avaient jadis appartenu. — Thiers, liv. 49, torn, xii., p. 45. 

This peace would have left to France, besides Belgium and the 
Rhenish Provinces, Holland, Piedmont, Tuscany, the Roman States, 
as departments of France ; Westphalia, Lombardy, Naples, as de- 
pendent kingdoms. 



Chap. IV. BATTLES OP DRESDEN AND KTJLM 53 

arrived at Vienna v\rith the news, and great re- i8i3. 
joicings took place. A " Te Deum " vras celebrated 
at St. Stephen's church, at which the Empress 
was present; and a courier, with a French eagle 
and two standards, entered the city, preceded by 
twenty -four postilions on horseback, cracking their 
whips. This, I was told, was an ancient custom. 
It was, at any rate, very acceptable to the crowds 
who accompanied the procession. 

These successes had relieved the Austrians from 
the fear of another occupation of their capital 
by Napoleon, but their apprehensions were still 
kept alive by the advance of the Italian army 
under the Viceroy Eugene across the Carinthian 
frontier. 

In spite, however, of this unexpected invasion, 
I resolved to visit the shores of the Adriatic, and, 
accordingly, in company with three English friends, 
I left Vienna (September 1813), and travelled to 
Eiume. We had no adventures, except that on 
one occasion we were mistaken for the Archduke 
Maximilian's party ; and my friend Mr. Baillie, 
a very tall and imposing person, was addressed 
by the postmaster as " His Imperial Highness " ; 
and except also that we were so near to the enemy's 
outposts that we mistook an Austrian for an 
Italian picket, and one of our party, in a moment 
of needless alarm, threw his letters of credit into 
the fire. A battle had been fought at Lippa, one 
post from Eiume, and, although the invaders 
had retreated from Eiume, they were expected 



54 riUME AND POLA Chap. IV. 

1813. to return, and for several days we were in doubt 
whether it would be safe for us to proceed on 
our journey. At last, however, we ascertained 
that the coast was clear, and we went to Eiume. 
The town was in great confusion, and the shops 
were all shut. 

The continued retreat of the enemy tranquillised 
Piunie. I remained there until September 21, 
when I left it in company with my three friends, 
and travelled, partly by water and partly by land, 
across Istria to Pola. We slept one night at a 
village, where we hired a man recommended by 
our host to escort us. He was a retired robber, 
and, being well paid, escorted us safely. I had 
seen far more famous ruins in Greece, but was 
much struck by the amphitheatre at Pola. It 
is said to have held as many spectators as the 
amphitheatre at Verona, and must have been 
worthy of the city destroyed by the soldiers of 
Osesar, and restored and colonised at the inter- 
cession of the daughter of Augustus. But the 
Julia Pietas of ancient days is now a desolate 
and dirty little town of about 7,000 inhabitants — 
one of the most wretched of the wretched com- 
munities composing the Prench Illyrian provinces. 
Besides the amphitheatre there are two other 
ancient structures, one called the Porta Rata, 
meaning, I suppose, the Porta Aurata or Aurea, 
an arch supported by Corinthian columns, with 
an inscription — salvia posttjma SERaii be sua 
PECTJNIA. Busching calls this structure magnifi- 



Chap. IV. FRENCH METHODS 55 

cent, and the ornaments of it are indeed of isis. 
exquisite workmanship. The other " antiquity," ^ 
'the common name of all ancient remains, is of 
greater dimensions, consisting of a portico with 
four columns and with an inscription on the 
facade, showing that it was dedicated to Rome 
and to Augustus, the son of the unconquered 
Csesar, father of his country. 

Our rambles through this place of dirt and 
desolation were made agreeable by the company 
of Captain Moresby,^ commanding the Wizard, 
an English brig-of-war at anchor in the bay, and 
Major Howel, who had been left by Admiral 
Eremantle, with fifty marines, to reconstruct 
the batteries which Captain Moresby had destroyed 
when the French evacuated Pola. The whole 
country was then in a state of transition, and a 
parish priest who had received us most hospitably 
on our return to Eiume, and showed us every 
attention, as soon as our backs were turned rated 
our boatman very soundly for bringing us to his 
house, saying, " The French will come back and I 
shall be shot " — a process with which the Istrians 
were sufficiently familiar, for, by that simple mode, 
the country had been completely cleared of the 
robbers who were masters of it when Napoleon 
acquired the Illyrian provinces. 

We coasted along the shore, and slept, if it 
could so be called, in a hovel at Fianone, a fishing 

' The Temple of Augustus and Koma : now the Palazzo Pubblico. 
^ Afterwards Admiral Sir Fairfax Moresby. 



56 DALMATIA Chap. IV. 

1813. station, whence we cjossed the bay, and were not 
sorry to return to Piume. Indeed, Fiume was 
a home to us in comparison with our Istrian 
quarters, just as Vienna seemed to be our native 
home in comparison with Fiume. 

We rambled about the country, and climbed the 
hills to the castle and the convent of Pranciscans. 
At the church of this fraternity were several well- 
built chapels ; the floor of one of them contained 
a stone inscribed thus — domus pratrum tjsqtje ad 
TTJBAM NOVissiMAM — an affecting association of the 
dead with the living. 

On Tuesday, October 4, Mr. Perceval and my- 
self started on a shooting excursion into the 
borders of Hungarian Dalmatia, in the district 
of Zengh. We were accompanied by our host 
of Fiume, and a blacksmith, our jager, with 
two dogs. We had no sport during our three 
or four days' excursion, but travelled into a 
beautiful country, washed by the sea on one side 
and overhung on the other by castellated crags. 
This district formerly belonged to the Counts 
Skrini, until Pietro Skrini, in 1671, lost the 
estate and his head too by conspiring against 
the Emperor Charles VI. This conspiracy was 
fatal to another noble, whose ruined castle we 
saw on some high crags above our road. Our 
friend from Fiume, Signer Marrantz, told us 
how this conspiracy was discovered. Count 
Francis Christopher Frangipani had the unlucky 
habit of talking in his sleep, and said enough. 



CHAP. IV. THE SKEINI AND FEANGIPANI 57 

on more than one occasion, to make his wife I813. 
suspect he was engaged in some dangerous 
business. The lady, by means not detailed to 
us, extracted the secret from her husband, and 
told it to a friend; the friend told it to an 
agent of the Imperial Government. Frangipani, 
Skrini, Nadasti, and Trattenbuch were beheaded. 
The execution of Prangipani took place at Neu- 
stadt on April 30, 1671. So says the story ; but 
I have not found any mention of the sleep- 
talking in any account that I have seen of 
the T^rangipanis of Eriuli. These were the days 
of cruelty and confiscation which immediately 
preceded the famous insurrection of Tekeli. 

After sleeping at the house of the parish ' 
priest at Grisani, we returned to Fiume. The 
market-place was crowded with deserters from 
the Viceroy's army, and tlie six Croat regiments 
raised by the French were, we heard, completely 
broken up. We saw a regiment of these Croats, 
some 1,200, swear allegiance to their new master. 
At breakfast the next day, October 6 (or 7), Ave 
read in the Fiume newspaper an account of the 
surrender of Laybach to the Austrians after a 
bombardment of thirty hours. Laybach, or 
Lubiani, was the capital of the French Illyrian 
provinces. 

On October 13 we left Fiume, just as the 
English line-of-battleship the Aigle, with the 
Archdukes Maximilian and Francis, with the wife 

VOL. I 8 



58 LAYBACH Chap. IV. 

1813. of the latter, on board, came to an anchor in the 
hay. We passed Lippa and slept at Ternova. 
The next day we passed through Adelsberg, 
which was full of troops on the march for the 
frontier of Italy, and we slept at the post-house 
of Lessina. Our host told us that the Viceroy 
Eugene had passed two nights, September 29 
and 30, at his house. He said the army of 
Eugene, in number about 12,000, was composed 
chiefly of Italian boys under twenty years of age. 

We were now on the high road from Trieste 
to Laybach, and were driven by post-boys in 
green liveries, with the Erench imperial eagle 
on their buttons ; but at the post-house of Ober- 
Laybach we came again upon the black Austrian 
eagle. At Laybach we were lodged in a large 
hotel, suitable for a city containing 20,000 in- 
habitants, and Avhich, as before told, the Erench 
had made the capital of their Illyrian provinces. 
Marshal Marmont kept a royal court here, and 
was much liked ; his chief amusement was shoot- 
ing, and, as the country abounds with game 
of every description, he found employment for 
no less than thirty dogs — pointers and spaniels 
of all kinds. 

We saw scarcely any vestiges of the siege 
which Laybach had suffered only a few days 
before our visit. The attack lasted just eight 
days, and the garrison that surrendered amounted 
to no more than five artillerymen and 140 
soldiers, of whom seventy were sick. 



Chap. IV. CASINTHIA 59 

The country round Laybach is very vrell culti- isis. 
vated, and the villages and country-houses betoken 
care and plenty. We stayed only a day at Lay- 
bach, and then vrent by Krainburg to Neumarktel, 
travelling at first through a rich valley, and 
then, approaching the hills, savr the Save in a 
deep ravine on our left. We struck into the 
mountains, and arrived at Neumarktel, a small 
town situated most romantically at the foot of 
a green hill in the depths of a gorge. Putting 
up at the miserable inn, we heard of an English- 
man settled a little way up the valley by the 
side of a brook that turned the wheels of a file 
manufactory. His name was Button, and he 
kindly not only showed us his establishment, 
called here New England, but accompanied us 
on our journey towards Klagenfurth. He had 
lived in the country about four years, and had 
been out of England, with only one short visit, 
ever since the year 1780. He told us some 
interesting particulars of the people in these 
secluded regions. He had been present at the 
sanguinary struggle that had recently taken place 
between the Austrians and the French in the 
passes of the Leoben mountain, and helped to 
carry away the wounded. We crossed this great 
hill, which seemed to close up the valley, and on 
a fantastic crag, almost in the clouds, perceived 
two objects looking like black posts, between 
which we were told we should have to pass from 
Carniola into Carinthia. We did struggle up to 



60 KLAGENPURTH TO GEATZ Chap. IV. 

1813. this spot by the help of six horses, and thought 
a good deal of our exploit, until we heard that 
a diligence had formerly travelled that wonderful 
road.^ Prom the summit of the Leoben we had a 
most extensive view, with the noblest Alpine 
scenery on one side, and the fine plain of Krain- 
berg, with the town itself, on the other. Here 
were the two obelisks of black marble which we 
had seen from below. They contained inscrip- 
tions commemorative of the Emperor Charles VI. 
AuREA SjecuI/A Restituenti. 

This day's journey brought us to Klagenfurth, 
the capital of Oarinthia, a city of 10,000 inhabit- 
ants. Thence we travelled on to Gratz : the 
journey occupied us five days, for the roads were 
miry with sand and rain, and our post-horses were 

' Note from Diary of Octobek 17, 1813. 

At the beginning of the war the French advanced ten thousand 
men from Villach, and determined to force the Leoben Pass : there 
were only sixty Austrian jagers to oppose them, but these had 
barricaded every turn of the ascent, as well as the summit itself : of 
these defences we saw the remains. Their first position was at the 
little church of St. Anne, and there the road is so steep and difficult 
of access, that it seemed to us wonderful that any soldiers could be 
induced to face an enemy posted to oppose them ; yet the French 
pushed up this ascent, and our host, Button, saw the officers drive 
their men forward witla their swords ; he saw many fall on the green 
slope below the church, under the fire of the jagers. They came to 
the great barricade on the summit, and made repeated elforts to 
force it. They attacked at first with 300, then with 600, and lastly 
with 1,500 men, trying to turn it by mountain tracks laiown only to 
the peasants and trodden only by them, but all in vain ; and having 
been engaged from two in the afternoon until eight in the evening, 
they gave up their attempt and retired. Forty carts full of wounded 
men passed through Neumarktel next morning. Button said that 
not one Austrian was touched in this battle ; similar stories have 
been told of other conflicts. Heavens knows with what truth. 



Chap. IV. COUNTESS PUKGSTALL 61 

often obliged to go at a foot's-pace. Indeed Mr. I813. 
Perceval and myself walked the greater part of 
the way, and were repaid by the extreme beauty 
of the surrounding scenery : we were on the banks 
of the Drave, between woody hills reminding me 
of the "Wye near Tintern Abbey. 

We were now in Styria, and crossed the great 
plain called the Gratzerfeld (the plain of Gratz), 
watered by the river Mur. We had seen the 
ruins of the citadel on the hill above Gratz from 
Karlstoff, the post-station immediately preceding 
the capital. 

Our residence of five days at Gratz was rendered 
most agreeable by the hospitable civilities of the 
Countess Purgstall, to whom I had a letter of 
introduction from Mr. Hammer, Editor of the 
"Mines of the East." Madame' Purgstall was a 
Miss Cranstoun, sister of Mrs. Dugald Stewart, 
married to a Styrian noble of high family and 
large possessions ; she had been Dame du Palais 
to the late Empress of Austria, of whom and of 
the Emperor Erancis she told many interesting 
anecdotes. Whatever their defects may have 
been, they bore their misfortunes with wonderful 
gaiety. Returning to Vienna, after the battle of 
Austerlitz, Madame Purgstall heard the Emperor 
say : " Well ! here we are ; well beaten." There 
was no such day of disaster during our visit. 
Whilst at an evening party at Madame Purgstall's, 
I saw Prince Hohenzollern, military Governor of 
Gratz, called out of the room ; and, on his return 



62 GRATZ TO VIENNA Chap. IV. 

1813. he announced tlie news of the great victory at 
Leipsig. It was received with clapping of hands 
and clieering from almost all present, as was the 
case also at the theatre, where the Prince sat in his 
state-box. One lady there was who did not join in 
the exultation ; she sat at the back of the Prince's 
box, pale and trembling, and her cheeks bedewed 
with tears. It was the Princess Hohenzollern 
herself, who had received the news of her son 
being badly wounded in the battle. The Prince 
endeavoured to console her by the usual topics ; 
but she would not be comforted. The victory was 
no victory to her. The young man died of his 
wounds. 

Gratz was the capital of Southern Austria, and 
Madame Purgstall told me that when she first 
came there she was introduced to no less than 
sixty-three noble families, all chapitrales, as they 
call those who have the privilege of sending their 
daughters to certain lay nunneries or chapters 
for education. 

We left Grratz on October 29, travelliag in 
the plain of the Mur by Rollestein, Briick, and 
Murzzuschlag, into Austria Proper; thence by 
Neustadt, and Baden, and Neudorf, to Vienna, 
to which we returned on November 2. 

At Vienna I stayed until November 30, and, 
during that time, passed some of the pleasantest 
days of my life in society such as is seldom 
to be found anywhere at any time. Nothing 
could exceed the beauty and accomplishments of 



Chap. IV. THE PRINCE DE LIGNE 63 

the women, and several of the men were amongst isis. 
the most known and best esteemed of that feverish 
and far-famed time. The Prince de Ligne was 
the principal attraction of society.^ His advanced 
age did not detract from his gaiety nor his polite- 
ness : his attention to the few English who were 
in that capital was marked, and was very useful, 
for there were but few families that received 
strangers in those days of anxiety and appre- 
hension. During the Congress of Prague it was 
doubtful whether amicable relations between 
France and Austria would be interrupted, and 
M. de Narbonne still remained at the Prench em- 
bassy. But when Napoleon broke off the negotia- 
tions and madly determined upon continuing the 
struggle, Austria declared war ; and every pre- 
paration was made at Vienna for that which many 
thought very probable — another visit of the French 
army. The crown jewels and the imperial arch- 
ives were sent off to Presburg, and the different 
corps d'armee were put in motion. The Prince de 
Ligne was seventy-eight, and infirm, and had retired 
from active service for many years, but asked for an 
audience of -the Emperor and offered to accept any 
command which his Majesty might intrust to him. 
Being asked what had induced him to hazard such 
a pleasantry, he replied, " Because I am the only 
general of the same rank whom Napoleon has 

' The Prince de Ligne died the following year. He was born in 
1735, and had distinguished himself as a soldier in the Austrian 
army during the Seven Years War : he also played a leading part at 
the capture of Belgrade in 1789. 



64 VIENNA Chap. IV. 

1813. never defeated." ^ In fact, he had not heen em- 
ployed since he commanded a corps under Laudon^ 
at the taking of Belgrade in 1789. He had long 
exchanged the sword for the pen, and had pub- 
lished many works of unequal merit; that on 
which he most prided himself, as he told me, was 
his last, published in 1807, the " Life of Prince 
Eugene of Savoy ; written by himself." He was 
delighted at having deceived our English critics. 
He was somewhat of a humorist ; and one of his 
pleasantries was to plaster the outside of his villa 
on the Calenberg hill, near Vienna, with bad 
Latin — that is, pretended quotations from Horace. 
It was generally said that he was not aware of the 
mistakes ; he was, however, capable of severe 
sarcasm when occasion required. I was present 
at an entertainment given by the late Mr. Har- 
court, where, besides the Prince, there were several 
members of the Corps Diplomatique, and amongst 
them a secretary of the Russian embassy. This 
person, being asked for a toast, gave " Death to 
the Emperor Napoleon " ; on which the Prince 
de Ligne said, " We give healths, not deaths ; and 
besides, we are not accustomed in this capital 
to deaths of Emperors." The Russian Ambassador 
himself was more than suspected of being well 
versed in such catastrophes. 

' He was made Field-Marshal in 1808. 

^ Baron de Laudon, 1V16-90. During the Seven Years War he 
took a leading part in four victories over Frederic the Great : Darm- 
stadt (1757), Hochkirch (1758), Kunersdorf (1759), and at Landshut 
(1760), but was defeated at Leignitz (1760). 



OiTAP. IV. THE PRINCE DE XIGNE 65 

I took leave of this most amiable m.an on 1813. 
November 28, 1813, at Yienna. lie was, or 
seemed to be, much affected, saying, " C'est avec 
beaucoup de peine que je vous quitte, je ne 
puis pas vous parler; " and, putting a note into 
my hand, he vralked away. The note was as 
follows : 

" Je ne veux pas dire adieu a mon cher et bien 
aimable Monsieur Houbouse, mais je veux qu'il 
sache mes regrets de le voir partir, et combien 
toute nia famille et moi nous I'aimons, Sa soci6t6 
nous faisoit tant de plaisir, sa gaiety nous (en) 
inspiroit. Soyez vous-meme un Revenant, cher 
Monsieur Houbouse. En attendant n'oubliez pas 
celui qui vous assure de son amiti6 et considera- 
tion distinguee. 

" LiGNE. 

" ViENNE, ce 28 Wovembre, 1813." 

The allusion to ghosts was occasioned by some 
ghost stories which were told at my last supper at 
the Prince de Ligne's. I gave this note to Lady 
Byron, on February 27, 1816, for her collection of 
autographs. 

The Prussian envoy at Vienna at that time was 
Humboldt, brother of the celebrated traveller : 
with the most courteous manner he united an 
intellect of the highest order and such erudition 
as is not frequently found out of Germany. He 
honoured me with much civil attention, and was 
pleased to speak favourably of the sketch of 
the Albanian language given in the Appendix 
to my " Travels." I recall now an answer 

vol;. I 9 



66 PBAGtJE AND TOPLITZ Chap. IV. 

1813. made by him to a question of mine respecting 
the origin and early history of that language. 
"It is in vain," said he, "to seek for them; 
they are as a single plank of a vessel that 
has foundered at sea, and has gone dovrn and 
is lost for ever. It is the same with the Basque 
language." 

I left Vienna in company with Mr. Barrett, 
afterwards M.P. for Bichmond, on November 30 ; 
on December 5 we arrived at Prague, and stayed 
there until the 10th of that month. Thence we 
proceeded to Toplitz, our journey being much 
impeded by the columns of Prench prisoners 
which had recently composed the garrison of 
Dresden, now in possession of the allies. Crossing 
the crest of a dreary hill in frost and snow, we 
fell in with several lines of Prench prisoners, and 
witnessed some painful scenes. A poor fellow, 
staggering along with an Austrian soldier, 
addressed me in Prench, and asked me to speak 
to his guard, adding, " All I want is leave to die ; 
I can go no farther." I spoke to the Austrian 
soldier, who tried to encourage his prisoner, and 
told him that the troops would soon halt. " Ah 
non ; de grace laissez-moi mourir ! " — and saying 
this, he sank on the ground, crawled to the 
roadside, lay down under a bush, pulled his 
cap over his eyes, and died. This death of 
only one man before my eyes had more effect 
upon me than the many signs of desolation 
and destruction to be seen all around me on 



Chap. IV, REMINISCENCES OP DRESDEN 67 

that day's journey. From one ridge on the Saxon isis. 
frontier I counted no less than forty villages in 
niias. 

We entered Dresden on the 13th, and left it on 
December 20. During our stay we heard a great 
deal of the memorable events vi^hich had recently 
taken place in the city and its immediate neigh- 
bourhood. We vrere shovrn the site of the battery 
from virhich the shot was fired that killed Moreau ; 
and at the palace of the French Ambassador, 
Baron de Serra, a Genoese, and a great favourite 
of Napoleon, vre savr the small carriage in vrhich 
Napoleon had travelled, on a sledge, from the 
Beresina to Dresden. I got into it, and was 
permitted to take a small relic of this vehicle^ — 
the strap of the right-hand window-seat. It was 
in this palace that in the summer of 1812 the 
conqueror received the thirteen sovereign princes 
who attended his levee as he marched into Russia. 
Sed qualis rediit ? The person who attended 
us at this house told us that, on the eve of the 
arrival of Napoleon, Mons. de Montesquieu called 
on the Baron de Serra, and said that a personage 
of consequence, thought to be the Grand Ecuyer, 
would come there in the course of the night. 
Some time afterwards a second messenger arrived, 
and, seeing our informant, asked him if he was 
valet de chambre to the French Ambassador. On 
being told that he was, the man added, " The 
Emperor will be here to-night." Napoleon did 
come about two in the morning ; Caulaincourt 



68 DRESDEN — LEIPSIG Chap. IV. 

1813. was in the carriage with him ; his face was sunk 
in a fur cap ; it was black with cold and dirt, and 
a grimy beard. " I had the honour," said our 
valet, " to wash his feet with eau-de-Cologne." 
The attendants who sat on the seat behind the 
carriage in the open air were in wretched plight : 
one was a Pole ; he had lost the use of both his 
legs above the knee, and four fingers of each 
hand had been cut off. The Frenchman had lost 
all the toes of his right foot. Our informant 
attended Napoleon during his stay, except when 
he was closeted with the King of Saxony. 
Napoleon went to bed for two or three hours, 
but did not sleep ; at half -past seven he rose, took 
a cup of coffee, and started for Erfurt. I heard 
several particulars of the French victory of this 
year at Dresden, and of the subsequent siege and 
surrender of the city. The transactions of this 
eventful period seem to me very faithfully 
narrated in the sixteenth volume of the " History " 
of Thiers. 

Erom Dresden we went to Leipsig, two days' 
journey ; near the latter town we saw many signs 
of the great conflict of the 16th, I7th, 18th, and 
19t]i of October : heaps of carrion and offal were 
smoking in every direction, and the suburbs of 
the city were dotted with shot-holes. The in- 
terior of it, the town itself, did not appear to 
have suffered; and had not our hotel been full 
of Russian officers, we should have felt none of 
the inconveniences of war, 



Chap. IV. PONIATOWSKl's GRAVE 69 

We procured from the Eussian Commandant isis. 
a permission to reside for four days in Leipsig, 
and, during that time, visited the usual sights, 
and more particularly looked into the booksellers' 
shops for some of those treasures for which this 
city was then famous : my companion made some 
purchases of books, but could not find anything 
more rare than a good copy of Valerius Maximus. 
During our wanderings we were shown the house, 
in the market-place, where Napoleon and the 
King of Saxony were lodged, and where, after 
the retreat of the French Emperor, the King was 
made prisoner. I presume this to have been the 
scene of the last interview between the two 
monarchs detailed in the " History " of Mons. 
Thiers. The house is in the corner of the square, 
and a projecting rectangular window marks the 
room in which they were together for the last 
time. 

On December 23 I took a solitary walk, and 
came in the suburbs to an enclosed garden, 
where I strolled about for some time, picking 
my way amongst fragments of cloaks, gaiters, 
belts, pieces of paper, covers of books, and 
other articles, denoting that this had been one 
of the scenes of the recent mortal strife. These 
were more thickly strewn by the side of a small 
stream about one-third as wide as the Avon at 
Bath. Seeing on the bank of this stream a 
little monument freshly erected and set round 
with newly planted shrubs, I stopped to look at 



70 LEIPSIG Chap. IV. 

1813. the inscription on the stone, and there I read 
these lines: 

I-Iic 
In undis EiiSTRi 

JOSEPHDS PONIATOWSKI 

PeINCEI'S 

SUMMUS EXERCITUS PoLONORUM Pe^FECTUS 

Imperii Gallici Maeeschallus,! tribus vulneribus 
Letiferis affectus ultimus ex acie discedens 

DUM EECEPTUM MAGNI GaLLOEUM EXEECITQS TUETUE 

Vita gloei^ et vatvli^ saceata functus est 

Die Octobeis xix — a. 1813, 

anno ^tatib completo lii 

POPULARIS POPULARI miles DuCI 

Hoc monumentum lacrimis suis irrigatum 

posuit 

Alexander Rozznechi. 

Walking a little farther, I came to a field be- 
yond the banks of the Elster, more thickly strewn 
with signs of the days of slaughter. But there 
were other and more painful tokens of the great 
uprising of the oppressed races against the con- 
queror. A pestilence had broken out in the city 
whilst in occupation of the French, and from the 
effects of it, as well as of the four days' fighting, 
the churches, and every available receptacle, were 
filled with sick and wounded. It was computed, 
as I learnt from good authority, that no less than 
seventy thousand corpses had been buried in 
three months, in the city and immediate neigh- 
bourhood of Leipsig, and, considering the enor- 

' He had beep made a marslial on the eve of the battle, 



Chap. IV. WEIMAE 71 

mous amount of the armies engaged, the mortality I813. 
does not appear at all incredible.^ 

The Confederation of the Rhine began to break 
up and dissolve into its original fragments before 
the battle of Leipsig. The defection of duke after 
duke was mentioned in the Frankfort Journal 
as an ordinary event, or rather advertisement. 
The Duke of Wurtzburg was the last deserter 
when we left Vienna. 

We left Leipsig on December 26 and, travel- 
ling by Lindenau and the far-famed Lutzen, 
slept at Weissenfels. Thence we went by the 
valley of the Saale to Naumburg, Auerstedt, and 
Weimar. At Weimar — the Athens of Germany — 
we stayed long enough to see the usual sights. 
The Ducal Palace is the most interesting of them : 
the hero of the Weimar family, Duke Bernard, 
is there represented by a figure in armour, and 
one finger of flesh. The escutcheons of all the 
towns taken by him are painted in medallions 
round the ceiling ; and at the foot of the figure, 
when we saw it, was laid a cocked-hat, indented 

' Mons. Thiers, summing up the whole of the two armies at the 
beginning of the battle on the 16th, says : " C'etaient done 130 et 
quelques mille hommes opposes k 300,000 " (p. 598, t. xvi.) ; and 
after the junction of outlying corps, the historian swells the 
numbers : " Car depuis trois jours cinque cent mille hommes se 
disputaient dans les plaines de Leipsig I'empire du monde " (p. 601, 
t. xvi.). Thiers estimates the loss of the French at forty thousand 
men, the loss of the allies at sixty ; only four hundred were killed 
in the city itself. Mons. Thiers is justified in saying, " Une oanon- 
nade de deux mille bouches h, feu termina cette bataille, justement 
dite des grants, et jusqu'ici la plus grande oertainement de tous les 
sifecles" (p. 607, t. xvi.). But Waterloo, where the numbers were 
very much smaller, was a far more decisive battle than Leipsig. 



72 WEIMAB TO rRANKPOBT Chap. IV. 

1813. by a musket-ball. This hat was worn by the 
Hereditary Prince at the battle of Wagram in 
1809. 

On December 29 we left Weimar, and passing 
at a little distance from Erfurt, saw the French 
flag flying, and heard the French drums beating. 
We went to Gotha, and thought it very inferior 
in every respect to Weimar. 

We pushed on towards Frankfort, and passed 
over the late battlefield of Hanau, strewed with 
carcasses of horses — some of them half -buried ; 
their frozen legs, like stakes sticking in the 
ground, gave our postilions some trouble to 
thread their way in safety ; but we got without 
accident to Frankfort. We put up at the Roman 
Emperor. In our sitting-rooms were the large 
lamps that had been used in the illumination of 
the day before to commemorate the declaration 
that Frankfort was again a free town. The public 
buildings of this city appeared superior to any we 
had seen, either at Vienna or Dresden. The hotels 
also were on an enormous scale, but their accom- 
modation in matters essential to health and decency 
was detestable. 

We made Frankfort our headquarters until 

1814. January 12, making, however, excursions to 
Hochheim and Wiesbaden, and visiting the out- 
posts of the allied armies above Cassel. On 
that occasion I had my first view of the glorious 
Ehine. I can quite understand why it was that, 
when the German hosts came in view of their 



Chap. IV. in SIGHT Or THE AKMIES 73 

great river, beyond whicli they had so long been isu. 
driven by the victorious French, they gave a 
shout, loud and long, and some fell upon their 
knees. 

Ascending a belvedere at Hochheim, we had 
a view of the Main, where it joins the E/hine, 
and looked down upon Mayence, so near that 
we could see the figures on the clock -tower. We 
saw the smoke of the fires in the bivouacks of 
the Russians and Prussians blockading the place. 
A little farther on was the bridge of boats, and 
the strong town, or tete de font, of Cassel 
commanding it. The French force that still 
held it was said to amount to 3,000 men, and 
we distinctly saw their sentinels parading the 
ramparts. On an eminence hard by, to which 
we walked, was a picket of Cossacks ; farther 
on, above, on the same ridge, was another picket, 
which we endeavoured to reach, but were warned 
back by a sentinel. It was within shot of Cassel, 
and we saw a cannon-ball or two on the ground, 
which accounted for the friendly hint of the 
Cossack. We passed by graves and dead horses, 
and the other signs of recent slaughter, to 
Hochheim. Entering this little town through 
some earthworks thrown up by the Russians, 
we found it full of soldiers. It was, indeed, 
the headquarters of the General commanding 
the blockade of Mayence on the right bank of 
the Rhine. 

Our host at Muller's Inn told us that Napoleon, 
VOL. I 10 



74 THE RHINE Chap. IV. 

1814. with his army of 120,000 men/ was ten days 
passing the bridge ; and he added that the whole 
road from Hochheim to Cassel, about two miles 
and a half, was crowded with cannon, ammunition 
waggons, and carriages of every description, so 
that a stoppage at the head of the bridge caused 
a halt at Hochheim. 5,000 French were left at 
Hochheim, and defended it for three hours against 
Bubna and Giulay, at the head of 20,000 men. 
They lost 1,000 of their men, but got the remainder 
across the river. 

The fighting had ceased on the right bank of 
the Rhine, but on the other side shots were occa- 
sionally exchanged, and we heard, now and then, 
the booming of cannon, the rolling of drums, and 
the clang of distant trumpets. Fresh graves and 
dead horses were plentiful in the plains near 
Hochheiiyi. 

We returned to Frankfort. The first snows we 
had seen there covered the streets on January 
9, and sledges were soon in frequent use. At 
Frankfort there was an agreeable society of our 
fellow-countrymen, two of whom, after an in- 
terval of half a century, are still alive (1864), 
Lord Cranworth ^ and Mr. Disbrowe. The latter, 
attached to Lord Cathcart's mission, told us that 
he had seen a man busily employed on the field 
of battle at Leipsig drawing teeth from the dead 

■ I heard afterwards that the Emperor Alexander rated the 
numbers lower, namely 85,000. — B. 

" Sir Robert Eolfe, Lord Chancellor, was created Baron Cranworth 
in 1850. 



Chap. IV. ADVANCE OF THE ALLIES 75 

bodies. Lord Cranworth, then Mr. Rolfe, a fellow I814. 
of Downing College, with, whom I had afterwards 
an intimate official connection, was the same lively, 
well-informed, agreeable gentleman that he is 
now. The rest of our little society there have 
been long dead. 

I left Erankfort with Mr. Barrett on January 
12, and travelled all night to Marburg in 
Westphalia. On the road we met large bodies of 
Prussians, both cavalry and infantry, on their 
march from Erfurt to join Marshal Bliicher. 
As we were passing one of the columns, a voice 
called to us in German, " How many miles to 
Paris ? " We heard the next morning that Lord 
Castlereagh had passed at half-past six with four 
carriages on his way to the conference at Erank- 
fort. Another effort was to be made to awaken 
Napoleon from his dream. On the road to 
Cassel we saw several triumphal arches erected 
to welcome the return of the old Landgrave to 
his dominions. 

This capital of the Erench Westphalian kingdom 
had witnessed some of the vicissitudes of war a 
short time before. When General Ozernichef first 
appeared before the town he might have taken 
King Jerome and his whole Court prisoners ; but 
a delay of two days saved them, and they fled to 
Coblenz. As soon as the Russians entered the 
place, the mob rose and proceeded to break the 
statue of Napoleon in the Place Royale, and 
would have destroyed it had not Czernichef placed 



76 CASSEL Chap. IV. 

1814. a guard to protect it. In about a week the 
Eussians retired, and the Erench returned, and 
the prisons were filled with citizens. King Jerome 
came back a week after his troops; but in a 
fortnight, four days after the battle of Leipsig, 
the King and Court again ran away, accompanied 
by the Westphalian guards, who, however, deserted 
daily, and were dismissed altogether on arriving 
at the Rhine, not without many hard words from 
his Majesty. About eight or nine of the West- 
phalian nobility fled with Jerome, and amongst 
them his prime minister, Count Purstenstein ; but 
several of these returned and retired to their 
country-houses . 

Jerome's chief fault was his inordinate love of 
women, and his seraglio was more expensive than 
became so insignificant a sovereign. But he was 
not a bad king : he was not cruel ; although he 
was obliged to inflict capital punishment on more 
than one of those who occasioned two revolts 
during his reign. Jerome was very affable, but 
not so his queen, a princess of Wurtemberg, who 
disgusted the Hessians, and remained but a short 
time at Cassel. We were shown the apartm.ents 
in the palace inhabited by their Westphalian 
Majesties ; but many of the most valuable articles 
of furniture had been carried away at their last 
flight. The Landgrave did not inhabit this palace 
in 1813. The military rank of those officers who 
rose under the brother of Napoleon was still pre- 
served; men whom the Landgrave had left 



Chap. IV. GENERAL DORNBEBG 77 

sergeants, he found generals at his return, and isu. 
suffered them to continue generals. 

We walked to Wilhelmshohe, a superb country- 
seat two miles from Cassel, superior to any I had 
seen, except Potsdam. We saw the scaffolding 
against the front facing Cassel, which had been 
employed in taking down the inscription " Napo- 
leonshohe," and which was to be employed in 
replacing the old inscription "Wilhelmshohe." We 
went through the principal apartments, but were 
not able to see the theatre, as the Landgrave and 
his brother Ferdinand and his nephew were there. 
We caught a sight of these Princes — the two 
former, old gentlemen in cocked hats ; the latter, 
a fine-looking young man in an hussar uniform. 

The Landgrave was a good-looking old man. 
We were told that he rose every morning at four 
o'clock, and drove, at seven, to Wilhelmshohe, 
where he amused himself with writing, first in 
one room, then in another, as if to renew his 
acquaintance with an, old friend. 

The Prince Hereditary, a young man of thirty, 
had the command of all the Hessian troops, amount- 
ing to 24,000 men, who were to march in a fortnight 
to join the allies. 

At Cassel we saw a person of some notoriety. 
General Dornberg. He was a colonel under Jerome, 
and much in his confidence. So, at least, we were 
told ; but if that were so, he does not seem to have 
deserved it, for when the peasants revolted, and 
he was ordered to march with his regiment against 



78 MUNSTEB, Chap. IV. 

1814. them, he came within musket-shot of the rebels, 
halted, and in a few words advised his soldiers 
to join them. The troops hesitated ; and the 
second in command exhorting them not to be 
traitors and league with robbers, they fired on the 
peasants, and soon dispersed them. Dornberg 
escaped only by the fleetness of his horse, and 
galloped to the next post-house, where he passed 
for a courier with despatches from the King. He 
afterwards got to Prague, and was since in the 
English service, in which, when we saw him, he 
had the rank of general. 

Erom Cassel we travelled all the night of 
January 16, dreadfully shaken by the frozen snow, 
and arrived at half -past five the following evening 
at Munster. There we stayed the next night, and 
the following day went to look at the sights, of 
which the most historical, if not the most curious, 
were the three iron cages near the top of the 
high tower of St. Lambert's church, contain- 
ing the bones of Jack of . Leyden and his two 
accomplices. 

Munster, which belonged to the Grand Duchy 
of Berg, was now in the hands of the Prussians ; 
and at the theatre we saw a farce representing the 
whole family of Napoleon, with King Jerome riding 
on a goat. The corps of Winzingerode, of 22,000 
men, of whom 5,000 were cavalry under Ozernichef , 
had passed the Rhine on the Priday previously to 
our visit. 

We could not procure post-horses as we ap- 



Chap. IV. IN HOLLAND 79 

proached the Dutch frontier, and were obliged to isu. 
put up with peasants' horses. The poor animals 
could only go at a foot's-pace, and were accompanied 
by their masters walking at their side. But we 
got on slowly, and passed into Holland at Alten. 
There we saw the orange cockade in many hats, 
and a little farther the orange flag was flying from 
several churches. Bating these signs, no one 
would have thought that a great revolution had 
taken place this very month. These changes occur 
very quietly in modern times. One army, or 
detachment of gensdarmes, quits a town, and 
another military body marches in ; ribbons and 
signposts are altered, nothing more; the inhabitants 
pass from one owner to another with all the tran- 
quillity of a commercial transfer. 

Our progress was now very tardy. The country 
was covered with snow and ice ; the carriage stuck 
fast more than once, and, at last, we were fairly 
upset ; but, falling into a ditch full of snow, broke 
no bones, nor any part of our carriage. We got 
our chaise on its wheels again, and walked to a 
lone post-house, where we passed the night, 
very cold, but, in other respects, comfortable 
enough. 

The next day we started for Arnheim, and, 
floundering on for some time, fell, as before, into 
a snow ditch, suffering no mischief of any kind. 
After passing Doesberg we crossed a branch of the 
Rhine on a bridge of boats. It was frozen, and so 
covered with snow that we were not aware that we 



80 HOLLAND Chap. IV. 

1814. were near the river. We were told that it had not 
been so completely frozen since the French invaded 
Holland in 1794-5. 

We remained in Holland until February 2, 
visiting Utrecht, Amsterdam, Haarlem, Leyden, 
and The Hague. In every accommodation for 
travellers, and the general appearance of the 
cities and the country, Holland seemed to us a 
century before Germany — the people better clothed, 
fed, and lodged, and infinitely more civilised. I 
speak, as Goldsmith's Traveller spoke, of those 
whom I saw and conversed with — namely, the 
innkeepers and their servants. It was in the 
days of war, and we passed within sound of the 
cannonading at Gorcum and Naarden, but were 
not molested for an instant by either of the com- 
batants. King Louis had left behind him a good 
name, although the French were not liked ; and 
when Napoleon incorporated the country with 
France,^ and hurried off his brother by a squadron 
of dragoons, a hint from Louis would, so we were 
told, have roused the population, and, for a time, 
have prevented his removal. The Prince of Orange 
was preferred by contrast and as a symbol of inde- 
pendence. 

The Corps Diplomatique, including our own 
Lord Clancarty, were at The Hague in attendance 
on the restored Sovereign. 

Diary. January 30. — News has reached The 
Hague that Murat has joined the allies on con- 

' In 1810. 



CHAP. IV. RETURN TO ENGLAND 81 

ditions of returning his sovereignty during Ms 1814. 
life, and of leaving to his children certain Italian 
States, of which Piombino is to he the capital. 

I finished "Mathilde," the end of which left 
a most melancholy impression upon me, although 
I laughed at the faintings of the heroine and the 
ravings of the Archbishops of Tyre through the 
whole book. 

February 6. — I hear that wheat has fallen 
alarmingly ; that the Thames has been frozen 
over, so that they have printed upon it (a true 
English peculiarity), and roasted oxen ; and that 
in the new pantomime there is a song by an 
oyster crossed in love. 

To-day I learned my book, " Travels in Albania," 
has been favourably reviewed in the Quarterly} 
This, to be sure, put me in great spirits. 

Book. — We did not see the British Ambassador, 
but Mr. Grordon, Lord Aberdeen's brother, and 
Mr. Temple, Lord Palmerston's brother, attached 
to our embassy, called upon us, as we were start- 
ing for Maaesluys and Delft. We had intended 
to cross the Maaes the same evening, but the ice 
coming down in large blocks made the passage 
dangerous. 

We slept on board the packet, and at five the 
next morning got under weigh with a fair wind 
that lasted the whole day. The next morning the 
coast of England was in sight, close to Hosely 
Bay; but a violent south-wester was blowing, with 

1 The review was written by Sir John Barrow. 
VOL. I 11 



82 HETtTRN HOME Chap. IV. 

1814. a high, sea, and we were tacking every five minutes, 
and could not land. 

Indeed, when the packet anchored at last, we 
were told that we could not land without a boat 
belonging to the Alien OflS.ce. This delayed us 
an hour, but at last we did land, and after an 
absence of eight months I was again in my own 
country. 



CHAPTER V 

Diary. February 8. — Walked to Manchester isu. 
Buildings. Met my father just coming out of 
No. 11. He was as glad to see me as a man of 
fifty-six is to see anything. I met Kinnaird ; he 
was glad to see me. 

February 9. — Called on Kinnaird. Byron out 
of town. They are attacking him in the Courier 
and Post, for his " Weep, Daughter of a Royal 
Line," incautiously inserted in his " Corsair," 
his last, and some say his best, poem. 

Kinnaird was delighted to hear from me that 
every one in Holland thought the allies would get 
to Paris. Here most people think otherwise. 

He took me to Madame de Stael's to tell her 
the story of Bateman and Buonaparte. I found 
that extraordinary woman in a little room. I 
thought her unpleasantly mannered. I believe 
I disgusted her. Her daughter came in : pretty 
eyes, but a dirty complexion. She swore all I 
said about Napoleon's discourse was true. "It 
was like him," she said ; "I know the man." 
She inquired eagerly after the Crown Prince. At 
parting she asked Kinnaird and his brother to 
come to her Priday evening parties. She took no 

83 



84 LONDON Chap. V. 

1814. notice of me, except to thank me for my anecdote. 
Afterwards I dined with the Literary Fund. 

February 10. — Called on Lord Holland with 
Kinnaird. Pound there Lady Holland on a sofa, 
Lord Holland writing notes and talking — in the 
gout. Sam Rogers, Lord Stair, Tierney, standing 
as at an audience. I was foolishly embarrassed 
and dropped my hat. The news of the day was the 
defeat of the Erench which, they said, I had fore- 
told yesterday, and vastly pleased them. Now 
this seemed to me carrying the feelings of domestic 
politics too far. Yesterday I met Mr. Knight, 
late M.P., and friend of Sir Prancis Burdett : he 
said, when I expressed my opinion that the 
allies would get to Paris, " Well, I still keep 
up my spirits ; if they do I shall go to America." 

I was put up to-day for the Cocoa-Tree Club. 

I went to the play at Covent Garden, which was 
overflowing ; there I saw and joined my dearest 
Byron, in a private box. It is long since I have 
been so happy. I came home with him and sat 
until near four in the morning. He showed me 
several original letters of Robert Burns addressed 
to Mr. Cleghorn. 

Byron gave me one of his letters, in which 
he gives up farming and says that the excise, 
after all is said about it, is the best business for 
him. 

February 11. — I dined with Lord Holland. 
Present : his wife. Dr. Allen, Mr. Horner, and 
Kinnaird. Kinnaird unwittingly tried to show 



Chap. V. SOCIETY 85 

me off ; I talked too much by half, and learned isH. 
nothing. 

Lady Holland told me Mr. Pox never would 
read anything written against him. " No," said 
he, " that is what they want me to do, but I 
won't." I can't say that Lady Holland was 
farouche, although she was a little brusque, but not 
with me. I fear Lord Holland, the most delight- 
ful man alive, was not quite pleased with my 
talk. I came home about eleven. Mr. Allen did 
not open much, nor talk at all against the Scrip- 
tures. I heard no joke of any kind. 

February 15. — Called on Byron and Lord 
Holland. Met Lady Bessborough there, who was 
civil, and I seemed as if nothing had passed be- 
tween us. I dined at Reilly's, and Byron had tea 
with me, I supping with him. I came to-day 
into lodgings>at No. 7, St. James's Place, for which 
I gave — coals included — £4 4s. per week. 

February 16. — Went to a party at Lord Lans- 
downe's, where I was much pleased. Lady 
Bessborough there. Adair said fine things to 
me about my Dardanelles expedition ; " better," 
said he, "than I could have done it myself." 
Formed acquaintance with Lady Harrowby, fine, 
good-humoured woman. Madame de Stael there, 
flirting with a sprig of myrtle. Her daughter 
pretty-looking, but loud. . . . 

February VI. ■ — E,ode in the park with Kinnaird. 
Dined at five at the Boyal Society Club. Present, 
Lord Spencer, who laughed now and then, but 



86 LONDON Chap. V. 

1814. was generally grave and did certainly make the 
club less gay than usual. 

I went to the play at Lord Byron's box. Cap- 
tain Byron came in. . . . 

This evening I was proposed for a member of 
the Royal Society, and this day also elected a 
member of the Gocoa-Tree Club. 

February 18. — Byron with me. ... I have 
read his " Corsair," which, although it has not 
such brilliant passages as the " Childe," is, on the 
whole, better. Its success has been astonishing, 
13,000 copies sold in a month. The abuse 
showered upon Byron for the "Weep, Daughter 
of a Royal Line," helped it along. 

February 19. — Dined with Hodgson ^ — Slaugh- 
ter's coffee-house, and afterwards with him and 
Byron to a private pit box to see Mr. Kean in 
Richard. He was extremely happy ; and is a very 
short man with a piercing black eye. " Off with 
his head; so much for Buckingham," was given 
thus : The instant he received the news of 
Buckingham being prisoner he said quickly, " Off 
with his head," and then, advancing to the front 
of the stage, added with a savage smile, " So much 
for Buckingham." He gave a sportive ferocity 
to the character, which I think it requires. His 
scene with Lady Anne was highly finished. His 
expostulation with Stanley in the north, " What, 
do they so in the north ? " with a loud, shrill, 

" The Kev. Francis Hodgson (1781-1852), the friend and Cambridge 
contemporary of Byron and Hobhouse. Afterwards Provost of Eton. 



Chap. V. NAPOLEON AND THE ALLIES 87 

taunting interrogatory, had an extraordinary I8i4. 
effect ; and lastly, his combat with Richmond was 
surprising. He continued pushing with his hand 
after he had received his wound, and dropped his 
sword as if he had not lost his weapon, and 
showed by his vacant stare that he was struggling 
with the effect of the fatal blow. It was only in 
a sudden that death could seize, then he fell flat 
backwards at once. 

After the play I went to Lady Harrowby's, a 
party which is reckoned and called the " exclusive 
exquisite " in London. Madame de Stael, the 
Lansdownes, Ward, etc., were there ; Madame de 
Lieven and other foreigners, insomuch that I 
heard as much Prench talked as if we had been 
in Paris. 

February 21. — "Walked up to London. Dined at 
Sastres's. He is as lively and literate as ever. 
He told me that he did not like Byron's poetry, 
but was pleased with his prose. He is the only 
man who has ever told me so. 

February 22. — Napoleon has apparently beaten 
the allies further from Paris. Holland House 
is in delight, and my friend Knight assumes 
the tone of moderation which he thinks it becomes 
a successful person to put on. S. B. Davies is in 
high feather. . . . Spent the night with Byron. 

February 23. — I dined with Byron at the 
St. Albans', and bet him a guinea dinner for two 
that the allies are this day at Paris. Sat with 
him at home hearing his confessions. 



88 LONDON Chap. V. 

1814. February 24. — At a party. Introduced to Miss 
Mercer, the Miss Mercer the fops despair, sup- 
posed to be the Miss Broadhurst of Miss 
Edgeworth. She is not handsome, hut has fine, 
agreeable eyes. She is attractive and sensible, and 
not at all shy. She told me she was present when 
the Princess of Wales burst into tears upon the 
Prince abusing his Whig friends, which he did 
in the presence of Lord Lauderdale, most violently, 
beginning by saying if he had not lost Mr. Pox he 
should never have looked elsewhere for a friend, 
but that he looked up to no one now. The Prince 
had drunk immoderately; it was just after the 
course was removed. The Princess began to sob 
violently, and in spite of pushing round the dessert 
and other efPorts, her emotion became sensible, 
so that the Prince said, " You had better retire," 
with which the ladies all rose ; and the Prince, 
laying hold of Miss Mercer's arm, dragged her 
into an inner drawing-room, and sat there for half 
an hour. In consequence. Miss Mercer was for- 
bidden, for eight months, the entrSe of Warwick 
House. ^ 

Miss Mercer told me of a curious instance of 
absence in the Duchess of St. Albans. Mr. 
Motteaux made love to her and used to bore her 
with long visits. He stayed one day ani immense 
time and was handing her into his carriage when 
she, quite forgetting his presence, turned round to 

' In Warwick Street, Cockspur Street. The residence of Princess 
Charlotte. 



Chap. V. NAPOLEON AND THE ALLIES 89 

her footman and said, "There, if Mr. Motteaux i8i4. 
calls again, don't let him in." She told of 
Madame de Lieven that, heing pressed by a lady 
once to go to a play according to a former 
arrangement, she said she could not, and added, 
" Pour vous parler avec franchise, je pr6f6rerais 
aller avec un autre." 

February 25. — Davies called. Dined with Lord 
Lansdowne. Present Mr. Pielding and his wife ; 
Lady Lansdowne's sister, an old-looking, pretty 
woman ; Mr. Baring and his wife, and a Mons. La 
Borsa, or some such name, who left Paris on 
October 15. He told me that the Erench thought 
Napoleon would return as he did after the 
Beresina from Krasnoi, and were astounded to 
find he brought back 85,000 troops. He thinks 
the Prench will certainly stand by Napoleon 
during the war, although in peace a comparison 
of their slavery with the freedom of the neigh- 
bouring nations must make his sway intolerable. 
He saw a letter from the Emperor to Talleyrand, 
proposing the issue of paper money, a means used 
when the Prench were successful during the 
revolution war, and known by all the powers 
successful against him. " You have told me," 
said he, " that my enemies must all be ruined by 
their paper money, yet I see them now in Prance : 
English, Russians, Prussians, Austrians, all issues 
of paper money." 

Lord Lansdowne said that Mr. Pitt used to say 
that the life of man was too short for Sir T. 

VOL. I 12 



90 LONDON CHAP. V. 

1814. Macpherson's speeches and Sir !P. D'lvernois's 
pamphlets. He told also that a man seeing Lord 
Thurlow's handkerchief hanging out of his pocket 
in the street, stepped up to him and said, " You 
will lose your handkerchief, sir." "It will do 
very well, sir, if you do not touch it," answered 
the other. 

February 26.— Walked about after reading, as 
usual, a little of ^Eschylus. Dined at Willis's 
Rooms with the Westminsters — about a hundred 
and twenty present — and renewed acquaintance 
with Littledale, Plowden, Glynn, Savile, and 
Mitchell. They were all very kind, and glad to 
see me. I sat next to Seton. Gary was there, 
and studiously neglected Lord Lansdowne, be- 
cause in opposition. Brande the chemist was 
there, and placed at the cross table with the 
grandees — an honourable tribute to talent. I went 
from our table to Byron's, and sat until half- 
past one. 

February 28. — Allies driven back to Troyes. 
Peace approaching, as Robinson is gone back with 
despatches to Prance to proceed to the Congress 
at Chatillon. Spent the evening with Byron. 

March 2.— rDined at Cuthbert's, where met 
Brougham, Eden, Howard, and M. A. Taylor, 
and sat next to Miss Mercer at dinner. She em- 
ployed most of her time in quizzing M. A. Taylor, 
in the which I, foolishly joining, and asking her 
if he was not the chicken, was overheard, and 
thus ran the chance of offending him for life. 



Chap. V. DINNER AT CUTHBERT's 91 

Kinnaird told us that Meerfeldt told him that 1814^ 
when Savary was at St. Petersburg he said, 
when some one asked him if Caulaincourt, the 
coming Ambassador, was not the murderer of the 
Duke d'Enghien, for whom the Russian Court 
was then in mourning : " Non, c'etoit bien sot de 
lui dire 9a, il etoit seulement a Mannheim avec 
des troupes pretes a fonder sur le due de Baden 
s'il avait refuse I'arrestation du due. C'etoit moi 
qui I'ai fait fusilier." On some one asking him if 
it was true that the grenadiers had refused to fire 
upon the Duke, he said, "Ah, j'avois bien choisi 
mes gens, ils auraient fusilles I'empereur si je 
leur avals donn6 I'ordre." 

Brougham was not very agreeable. The party 
was ill-chosen, for he has a great contempt for 
Eden, who is a Holland House cub, and Miss 
Mercer had ill-treated Frederick Howard, so that 
our company was suflB.ciently nial assorti. M. A. 
Taylor was highly ludicrous and important, and 
after dinner talked so much of preferring a 
young to an old woman, that he drove the ladies 
away. Brougham laughed at Madame de Stael 
and Schlegel. He said he thought Gentz had no 
reputation or influence in Germany. He told us 
that Leuvenheim told him that the Emperor 
Alexander rated the Erench princes that crossed 
the Bhine in all 85,000. Going upstairs, we had 
a party and waltzes. Horner introduced me to 
Sir J. Mackintosh, Miss Mercer to Lady Keith, 
the Queeny of Mrs. Thrale. 



92 I;ONDON Chap. V. 

18U. March 3. — Rode about with Kinnaird in the 
Park. Called on Byron, who showed me a silly 
letter of Tom Moore's. 

Dined with Edward Ellice. Met there Com- 
missioner Grey, Colonel Grey, Lady Grey, Eliza 
Grey, Captains Henley and Wallace. Eliza Grey 
is a daughter of the late Duchess of Devonshire 
by Lord Grey, and is a fine girl, sensible and 
talkative, and easy-mannered. There was a Tom 
Adkins, a bald-headed buffoon, with his arm in 
a sling, who. called the Colonel Billy Billy and 
the Commissioner George, and was otherwise very 
obstreperous. He is the man who, having spent 
all his money at college in company with Lord 
Grey and Whitbread, is now a sort of pensioner 
on their bounty, and is a fine warning against 
such folly. Edward Ellice calls his wife " Handy," 
which has a bad effect. No talk except from 
myself, so I learnt not one thing. All family 
matters discussed. 

March 7. — ^I called at Byron's. He told me he 
had this morning given away Hanson's eldest 
daughter as bride to the Earl of Portsmouth, and 
by accident was nearly married himself. Hanson 
asked his advice about the matter some days since, 
for Lord Portsmouth is a fool, and was before 
married by his brother, Newtown Pellowes, to 
Lord Grantley's sister, who had £12,000. In 
order to get back the £12,000, Lord Grantley 
wants to marry him a second time to another 
sister of Lord Grantley's, but Hanson, hearing 



Chap. V. LORD PORTSMOUTH'S MARRIAGE 93 

from him his attachment to his daughter, clenched I814. 
the matter. Lord Portsmouth proposed Saturday, 
and this morning the couple were married in 
Bloomsbury Chapel by licence. Portsmouth is 
forty or forty-five ; the girl, the Countess, twenty- 
four. Hanson had certainly some scruples about 
the honesty of the transaction, and therefore asked 
Byron, and got him to give his daughter away 
in order to involve him. Portsmouth has £20,000 
per annum, and says he is the happiest of men. 
Byron laughed all the time, and gave her left 
hand away. 

Yesterday Campbell the poet called on Byron. 
Merivale the poet, author of " Greek Anthology," 
came in and was introduced. Campbell was very 
smart in the Quarterly, i.e. the last number, par- 
ticularly in the review of Dr. Grimm's corre- 
spondence. When Merivale retired he thought he 
had made an impression on him ; now, is Merivale 
the author of that very article ? ^ 

March 8. — There is and has been some days, 
hard frost with snow, such as I never remember 
in England for many years, nor the oldest man 
alive. 

March 9. — Things are taking a turn with the 
armies. Napoleon retreats, at least the allies 
are advancing again. Troyes is retaken — the 
French call this La Nouvelle Frise de Troy. 

I dined at the Cocoa-Tree with Kinnaird, 
Progmorton, Knight, etc. We had costly fare, 

' Yes : lie was. 



94 LONDON Chap. V. 

1814. champagne, vin du grave, and a great deal of 
talk, principally about Moreau, who, by all but 
Kinnaird and myself, was condemned. 

March 10. — I finished yesterday the " Prome- 
theus " of jiEschylus. Went to the play with Byron, 
to his box, where I saw with delight the Trip to 
Scarborough, cut into three acts, but still excel- 
lent. Mrs. Jordan was Miss Hoyden, and still 
surprisingly lively. 

Byron dressed to go to Lady Keith's, but would 
not go, so I went alone in his carriage to 45, 
Harley Street. A small early party on the invi- 
tation, but the room was so full that there was 
no moving about. Madame Catalani was there, 
and looking very handsome. Lady Keith, I believe, 
is a literary lady, but I saw the July number of 
the Edinburgh lying with the leaves uncut. His 
E/oyal Highness of Gloucester was there. Miss 
Mercer was vastly civil. She showed me books of 
her own illuminating, an employment she resorts 
to instead of the needle. I was sufficiently dis- 
gusted with my night's entertainment. 

March 11. — Gave dinner to Lord Byron at the 
Cocoa-Tree in payment of a bet respecting allies 
reaching Paris by the twenty-third of last month. 
Afterwards went to the Oratorio at Oovent Garden. 

March 12. — Went to Orchestra at Drury Lane 
with Byron, and there, after some bustle, got seated 
next to the oboe player. Tierney was next to 
Byron. We saw Kean in Hamlet ; he was to my 
mind most successful, especially in his first speech 



CHAt. V. KEAN AS AN ACTOR 95 

to Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, his distracted 1814. 
speech to Ophelia, whose hand he kissed with 
wonderful effect at parting, his "To he or not 
to be," his talk with the player about the rugged 
Pyrrhus, which electrified the house, and was 
delivered with an ease and nature which I never 
saw equalled. He fell off, as all actors in Hamlet 
must, in the latter part of the play. His fencing 
was superb. When he fell the pit rose, and the 
house, as usual, was in commotion for many 
minutes. I find that people are divided about 
Kean's Hamlet. Perry of the . Chronicle says it 
is well he did not begin with this part. Many 
think it is inferior to his Richard. Kean himself 
tells Kinnaird that he was dreadfully alarmed, 
his friends having received anonymous letters 
denouncing his failure, and he himself one just 
as he went on the stage. This made him say 
contumely and absent yourself, which is wrong. 
He is to do much better on Saturday next. Kean 
is a simple man. Kinnaird told me that he sent 
his wife to Pascoe Grrenfell, his patron, to ask him 
if he thought it would be any presumption or 
impropriety in his now keeping a horse. Grenfell 
said no, and his partner Williams sent him one 
that cost eighty guineas. Kean, so Lord John 
Russell told me, was going to drown himself 
when he had been in London a short time and 
had been refused by manager Harris, who told 
him that he was too short for any character. He 
thought, however, of his wife and child, and 



96 LONDON Chap. V. 

1814. fortunately had a kind landlady. Lady Elizabeth 
Whithread takes notice of Mrs. Kean, who is an 
Irish woman and sufficiently naive. She told 
Whithread that her husband was the best man 
in the world. Kinnaird has seen five hundred 
sheets of his comments on Shakespeare. Coutts 
the banker sent him thii'ty guineas : he bought 
a watch with it. Kinnaird oilered him any money 
he might want, but he had been forestalled. 

I came home and sat up until one with Byron, 
drawing up rules for a club of which he and I 
are to be the only members. 

March 13. — Rode out after reading some of 
Voltaire with Kinnaird. Called first on Lord 
or rather Lady Holland, who had a court about 
her ; amongst others, Dr. Holland the traveller, 
a modest-looking man, and Lord John Russell. 
Galloped in the Park, a dreadful, cold day, the 
ground half covered with snow. Spent evening 
with Byron. 

March 14. — Mr. Alston called. He brought 
the bad news, arrived last night, of our losing 
1,800 men in an attack at Berghen-op-Zoom. 
The 69th regiment hotly engaged and is much 
commended in the Gazette. Thank Heaven, Ben 
Hobhouse has again escaped scot-free. 

March 15. — This morning I parted all in friend- 
ship with Walker. I have been obliged to do this, 
which I hope is not a harsh measure, for to be 
hard with a servant is a most mean tyranny. 
There is a saying, " No man is a hero to his valet- 



Ghap. V, DINNER AT COCKBURN's 97 

de-chambre," There are, however, some who are i8i4. 
not heroes except to their valet-de-chambre. 

March 16. — My father yesterday told me that 
one Orme, an Indian gentleman, asked one David- 
son what his father was, and he replied, " My 
father was a saddler in London." "Hum, I 
wonder he did not bring you up in the same 
profession." Davidson in his turn said, "Perhaps 
I might ask you what your father was." " A 
gentleman." " Hum, I wonder he did not bring 
you up in the same profession," 

March 17. — Cockburn and myself set off for 
Oockburn's house at Hampstead, congratulating 
ourselves on the victory of Bllicher over Napoleon, 
which was announced this morning by the Tower 
guns. Since the great hoax, the City folk are 
afraid of believing anything, and the Punds have 
not been altered by the news. 

We had twenty-two at dinner. A Mr. Linley, 
Sheridan's first wife's brother, who returned con- 
tented with a fortune of about £1,200 a year, sang 
some songs with great effect, particularly " Stay, 
Traveller," composed by his father. 

March 18.— Read the first canto of the " Divina 
Oommedia"; called on Byron. Met Webster. 
Called on Lady M. Sheppard, who had a brat in 
her arms, which, however, she sent away. Had 
some conversation for an hour, and she is certainly 
a superior woman, and I am obliged to her for a 
hint she gave me. 

Dined at the Cocoa-Tree with Byron on fish 

VOIi. I 13 



98 LONDON Chap. V. 

1814. alone, this being the first day of our club. Went to 
the Opera in Covent Garden. Returned to Byron's 
room ; sat with him until one. He told me that 
Lord Holland told him that Lord Erskine being 
told by Lord Holland that his famous speech 
on somebody's trial had been much in the 
^Edinburgh said, " They are very right indeed." 

March 19. — Went to see three pictures which 
are being painted of Byron by Phillips, B.A. I 
see no resemblance in either one. 

March 20. — Copied a little of the " Prometheus " 
— read " Windsor Porest." The charms of that 
beautiful versification are not yet lost upon me, 
for which I thank God, considering how many of 
my delights have dropped away. That, however, 
which gives me the purest pleasure is a fine day ; 
and I had it this Sunday, when the tremendous 
frost which has now lasted, with little intervals, 
since January 1, received the first decisive blow. 
The sun shone in a warm, cloudy sky, and the 
novelty very much added to the luxury of my 
feelings with this change of weather. Walked 
along the banks of the Thames to Richmond. I 
then took a long tour in Richmond Park, with 
unutterable delight as to the warm weather. 

March 21. — Guns fired yesterday for a victory 
gained by Lord Wellington crossing the Adour^ 
near Orthes. This evening I went to a very small 
early party at Lady Lansdowne's, where there were 

' The passage of the Adour, over thirty miles distant from Orthes, 
took place February 23-27 ; the passage of the Gave de Pau, close to 
Orthes, on February 27. 




PORTRAIT OF LORD BYRON. 

REPRODUCED AND GIVEN BY 

THE LATE EARL OF LOVELACE TO LADY DORCHESTER. 

FROM A MINIATURE IN HIS POSSESSION. 



1^0 face page i 



Chap. v. LADY MELBOURNE 99 

not above 160 people present. I saw and spoke 1814. 
to a good many people I knew, but felt miserable, 
in spite of what used to revive me — kind words 
from Adair, etc. Lord Byron, whom I love more 
and more every day, not so much from his fame 
as his fondness — I think not equivocal, for me 
— introduced me, at her desire, to Lady Melbourne. 
Whether from habit or not I know not, but she 
trembled when she spoke to me. She certainly, 
as she says of me, does owe me an ill turn, for 
preventing her son from losing a bad wife. I 
told her a fib to please her about her son being 
popular in Vienna. Byron took me home in 
his carriage, and I sat with him an hour. 

March 22. — Went in Byron's carriage and made 
a call. The guns fired for the taking of Bordeaux ; 
it seems the white cockade has been hoisted there. 
I hear it costs Government a thousand pounds 
every time the guns are fired. I dined with 
Littledale in 3, Upper Wimpole Street. Vaux 
and a large party there. I flatter myself that I 
was very agreeable, but I fear I learned nothing, 

March 23. — Call on Lady Portsmouth with 
Byron, and on Lady Westmoreland, but did not 
go, as intended, to Murray's, in whose reading- 
room there is daily an assembly of Quarterly 
and other wits, into which, as an author or a 
gentleman, or more as a friend of Lord Byron's, 
whose works are Murray's income, I enter. 

March 28. — Whitton. This evening, after din- 
ner, I read aloud the " E-ape of the Lock," and 



100 LONDON Chap. V. 

1814. the " Elegy on the Death of an Unfortunate Lady," 
also the " Characters of Women." Nothing will 
do after Pope. I am convinced that even my 
friend's poetry would have been thought monstrous 
and affected in an age still ringing with melody 
and sense of that great writer. Indeed, the great 
success of " Childe Harold " is due chiefly to 
Byron's having dared to give utterance to certain 
feelings which every one must have encouraged 
in the melancholy and therefore morbid hours 
of his existence, and also by the intimate know- 
ledge which he has shown of the turns taken 
by the passions of women. He says himseK that 
his poems are of that sort, which will, like every- 
thing of the kind in these days, pass away, and 
give place to the ancient reading, but that he 
esteems himself fortunate in getting all that 
can now be got by such a passing reputation, for 
which there are so many competitors. 

The Edinburgh for January 1814 contains a 
sentence in which he is called the first poet of 
the day. Bogers called and said to him, " How 
will Scott like this ? and how will Campbell like 
this ? " — all the time thinking of himself. 
Campbell and Scott mutually hate and abuse 
each other. 

Miss Bayley told me to-day that Mr. Phipps, 
the oculist, told a gentleman, who told her, the 
following anecdote of the late Duchess of Devon- 
shire. Mr. Phipps was sent for to Chatsworth to 
operate upon the Duchess's eye. He stayed there 



Chap. V. GAMBLING IN LONDON 101 

some time, and at parting received from the Duke I8i4. 
a fee of £1,000. Just before lie stepped into his 
carriage, a message from the Duchess brought him 
to her chamber. She hoped the Duke had done 
what was handsome by Mr. Phipps. The gentleman 
protested, " Yes, and more than handsome." " It 
is an awkward thing," continued her Grace, " to 
ask, but really I am at this moment in immediate 
want of such a sum, and if you could, Mr. Phipps." 
What could the oculist do ? He produced his 
£1,000, took his leaye, and has never heard of his 
money from that day to this. 

March 30. — I dined with Mr. Owen Williams 
and an enormous party at his house, 41, Berkeley 
Square, and sat next to a younger sister of 
Kinnaird. Mr. Webb told me formerly there 
was much more play in London than now ; that 
he recollects faro-tables at the houses of women 
of quality ; that there were a thousand clubs 
for one now, and almost all drunken. The 
Eumelian used to sit till five in the morning. 
During the peace you took places at the 
Black Bear, Piccadilly, ifor Paris, paying five 
guineas. On the supposed rupture of the negotia- 
tions at Chatillon, the commission has fallen to 
thirteen. It has been at thirty-three. 

To-day's paper contains a proclamation of 
Murat, King of Naples, in which he says that 
he offered the Emperor Napoleon to defend Italy, 
but never received answer to his proposal. He 
felt his crown was to be given away. He took 



102 LONDON Chap. V. 

1814. part with the allies, and has actually commenced 
operations against the Viceroy, who still held his 
ground manfully at Milan. 

I read to-night a variety of old letters, sent to 
me from Vienna, which came from England for 
me. All from my family, and all infinitely tender 
and kind, especially from my father. 

March 31. — Sent some copies of waltzes to 
Miss Mercer. Dined with Scrope Davies and 
two of his brothers at the Piazza CofPee House. 
Byron took me to Lady Keith's, where was a 
large party, and where I was introduced to Sir 
T. Acland, a northern traveller. Lady Anne M. 
Elliot this night confessed to me what is so true, 
that for the first four or five years a town life 
is most miserable for a sensitive personage, who 
is met by cold looks and thinks every person in 
the world of a drawing-room is discussing the 
manner of his or her coming into or going out 
of the room. She has got over it ; why not I ? 
I passed a pleasant evening. 

April 2. — News arrived, and communicated to 
the Lord Mayor, that the conferences at Ghatillon 
were broken up on March 22, and that the allies 
have declared for the Bourbons. This has caused 
the Prince and his party infinite joy. On Thurs- 
day the Grand Duchess of Oldenburg arrived in 
London and put up at the Pulteney Hotel, which 
has been taken entire for her — one hundred and 
fifty guineas, so they say, a week. Two guards 
are mounted at her door. 



Chap. V. THE ALLIES ENTER PARIS 103 

April 6. — Cambridge. This morning the news isu. 
arrived from London of the taking of Paris by 
the allies on the 30th of last month, so my 
prophecy is correct. Paris was defended by about 
45,000 troops — 30,000 National Guards. Marmont 
and Berthier commanded. Schwartzenburg and 
all the allies, amounting to 200,000, made the 
attack on the heights of Montmartre, and Belle- 
ville, and in six or eight hours the city capitu- 
lated. 

April 7. — To-day news arrived that the Con- 
servative Senate is annulled in Paris, and they 
have informed the allies that if they wish to treat, 
they must treat with Napoleon. 

April 8. — This morning Davies came into my 
room with the Star newspaper in his hand, 
exclaiming, "It is all over, Hobhouse. Buona- 
parte is dethroned." It appears that after a long 
sitting of the Senate, convened by the Emperor 
Alexander, that body have declared the throne 
forfeited by the Napoleon dynasty. Pifty-four 
names are signed to the document, and the five men 
appointed to administer provisional government 
are Talleyrand, Jaucourt, etc. Paris is decidedly 
against their late Emperor. When the Emperor 
Alexander and the King of Prussia entered on 
the 31st, at the head of their troops, the way 
was cleared for them by the National Guards. 

Dined at Trinity College. I felt strange at 
being treated with so much respect by masters, 
who had once been my masters and punishers. 



104 CAMBBID&E — LONDON Chap. V. 

1814. I think I have got on in this world at least. My 
" Travels " are in Trinity College library. 

April 9. — News of the hasty defection of the 
French from Napoleon is arriving, also the com- 
munication of the forfeiture of the crown to 
Napoleon at Fontainebleau, where he is with the 
remains of his army, 45,000 men. 

April 10. — News that Napoleon, after some 
struggle in favour of his son, has abdicated the 
thrones of France and Italy, for himself and heirs, 
and has chosen for a retreat the Island of Elba, 
which was offered to him at the instigation of 
the Emperor Alexander, with a pension of 
£240,000 yearly, thus closing with the most 
extraordinary of all his actions the most extra- 
ordinary of human careers. It appears he 
said on hearing of the sum assigned to him, 
"It is too much for a soldier like me." Thus 
recurring to his darling and first choice of life. 
I cannot help feeling affected at this speech. 
My friends, Byron and D. Kinnaird, own them- 
selves likewise touched. Napoleon has written a 
farewell address to the army. There must in this 
also be something to awake sensations very 
different from exultation at the fall of this great 
man. An address signed Lacretelle published at 
Paris on the declaration of forfeiture, sums up 
Napoleon's crimes, and besides charging him with 
personal cowardice, ludicrously enough talks of 
his having insulted women at his Court and 
taunted them on the decay of their personal 



Chap. V. START FOR PARIS 105 

charms. That this address is official I know not. i8i4. 
The provisional government continue their work ; 
they have passed several decrees securing the 
ranks and possessions of individuals and the 
liberty of the press and of conscience. They have 
restored the Bourbons. A deputation is come over 
to this country to Louis XVIII. at Hartwell. 

Clarke lent me Honnel's treatise the " Troad " ; 
it is all very good, but there is no such river 
running into the Mendere ^ as the Shi/mar, and, as 
the tailor said of the villa on the Thames, take 
away the river, and there is nothing in it. 

April 11. — At five set off on horseback for 
London, determined to make the best of my way 
for Paris, whilst yet any part of the Napoleon 
vestiges yet remain. Rode up my bay mare by 
half-past one, stopping an hour and a half at 
Wades Mill to breakfast. Called on Byron ; he 
consents to go to Paris with me. Louis XVIII. 
is to set off immediately. I called on Hamilton, 
Under-Secretary at the Poreign Office, and after 
kicking my heels for an hour in the waiting- 
room, learned from him that Government will 
give no passports for Prance immediately. 

Dined with Byron at the Cocoa- Tree. At twelve 
walked with Kinnaird to see the illuminations. 
Carlton House was very brilliant with Vive les 
Bourbons in front, and a transparency repre- 
senting the triumph of <the Lilies. 

April 12. — Byron goes not to Paris. He is a 

' Mendere- Uliai, the modern name of the Scamander. 
VOL. I 14 



106 PARIS Chap. V. 

1814. difficult person to live with, He has written an 
ode to Napoleon Buonaparte, and offered to in- 
scrihe it to me. This I got off. 

April 14. — E/ide to London, find by a note 
on my table beginning. My dear H., that Mr. 
Henry Grattan, junr., will go with me to Paris. 

April 15. — Grattan calls ; by one o'clock he 
says he cannot come. Dined with Byron after 
fussing about at the Alien and Home Office. 

April 16. — Grattan says he will go. I call 
upon Kinnaird to get from him passports for Paris 
for Grattan and myself. Coming home, I find a 
note from Lord Sidmouth, and go to the Home 
Office, where he very kindly gives me despatches 
for Lord Oastlereagh and a courier's pass. I 
break up my lodgings, pay off the servant, go to 
the Angel Inn, and set off at eight in the Dover 
mail with my companion. 

April IV. — Had a quick passage. We were 
carried on men's shoulders to the beach. Arrived 
in Paris on the 19th. 

Book. — We had no adventures on the road, 
except that we met the Dukes of Duras and 
Montmorency on their way from England to 
attend Louis XVIII. to his recovered capital. 
They overwhelmed us with civilities. 

DiABY. April 22. — Paris. We spent this 
morning entirely at the Napoleon Museum at the 
Louvre. The effect produced upon me by the 
"Apollo Belvedere and Raphael's Transfiguration 
convinced me that all the vice and dissipation of 



Chap. V. TALMA 107 

mind of many years have not made me insensible 1814. 
to the sublimity of the Arts. Not only the col- 
lections, biit the ornaments of the galleries, bear 
the mark and superscription indeed of Napoleon. 
The N. is everywhere. A bust of Claudius is very 
like him. The picture of Brutus and his sons is 
wonderfully striking. 

April 24. — The Empress Maria Louisa regrets 
leaving the Tuileries, saying she was never so 
well lodged in apartments — si Men meuhles. She is 
a fool. She would not see Napoleon after his fall. 

April 26. — Went to the Prangais and saw 
Andromaque-Talma in Orestes and Mdlle. Georges 
in Hermione. The latter is very large, but has 
a fine face and strong lines with expressive action, 
so as now and then almost to remind me of Mrs. 
Siddons. She was wonderfully applauded, but did 
not please so much as Talma, whose action and 
expression is superior to anything I ever saw. 
His madness in the close terrified me, and 
produced every effect of the sublimest poetry, 
although I scarcely heard distinctly a single line. 
He occasionally dares being so loud, sudden, and 
vehement, as a London audience would not bear. 
His declamation I do not like, but that is because 
I like no declamation. 

April 27. — . . . Read an abusive life of 
Buonaparte. Drove in the carriage with Grattan 
to the Elysian fields. A poor place to be so much 
admired, vastly inferior to Kensington Gardens. 
The alleys of trees thin and scanty. 



108 PAEIS Chap. V. 

1814. Book. — I had heard Madame de Stael in London 
protest that, much as she disliked Napoleon, she 
should be greatly shocked at seeing Cossacks 
parading in the Rue St. Honor^. That sight I 
now saw, and I saw a battery of Prussian artillery 
posted on the first bridge over the Seine that I 
crossed on my way to the Champ de Mars. I 
there beheld several workmen busily employed in 
removing the sculptures from the fagade of the 
Invalides, as the said sculptures represented some 
of Napoleon's many victories. The same sort of 
operation was going on in various parts of the 
city, and the Imperial ensigns were making way 
for the Royal arms. 

The first notable personage that I saw was the 
Crown Prince of Sweden. He was getting into 
his carriage at the door of Marshal Berthier — 
how changed from the princely soldier whom I 
had seen at Stralsund only a year ago ! 

Louis XVIII. was not expected to reach his 
capital before May 3. He did enter Paris on 
that day, and I went to a house near the Port 
St. Denis to see the procession. 

The windows were full of people decently 
dressed, chiefly women. Carpets, sheets, and here 
and there a piece of embroidery, hung in front 
of the balconies. A little before nine o'clock a.m. 
a battalion or two of National Guards marched 
through the gate towards the barrier, where the 
King was to receive the keys of the city. They 
were more than an hour in passing, and lined 



Chap. V. ENTRY OP LOUIS XVIII. 109 

both, sides of the road from the arch to the isu. 
barrier. The show would have been more agree- 
able to the Parisians if a picket of Russian 
grenadiers had not marched across the lines 
when changing guard. The city authorities then 
proceeded towards the barrier, and were followed 
by a procession of young girls in white dresses, 
with banners and flowers. These were to com- 
pliment the Duchesse d'Angouleme. It was a 
little past two o'clock before the advance guard 
of the royal procession began to appear. The 
gensdarmes, some cavalry of the line, and a 
squadron of the old Imperial Guards, now began 
to march through the gate, and the cries of " Vive 
le Moi " were general enough, and became more 
animated Avhen the National Guards passed and 
recognised their friends in the windows. But 
the other soldiery were silent, notwithstanding 
the friendly cries of " Vive la Garde," when 
Napoleon's grenadiers and chasseurs of his guard 
passed by. The hints to applaud seldom came 
from any of the spectators, but from that part 
of the procession composed of returned emigrants 
in the uniform of the National Guards. The 
King's carriage passed the gate a little after two. 
It was drawn by eight white horses, each led by 
a groom. Marshal Berthier preceded it on a white 
charger ; Marshal Moncey immediately followed 
it, attended by a crowd of generals plastered with 
orders and with gold. The King was in the uniform 
of the National Guards. He looked well, though 



110 PARIS Chap. V. 

1814, pale ; his head was, for the most part, uncovered, 
and he hewed and smiled at the acclamations, and 
placed his hand on his breast. The Duchesse 
d'Angouleme sat on his left hand ; opposite to 
them sat the Prince of Conde and the Duke of 
Bourbon. Monsieur rode at the right of the 
carriage, the Duke of Berri at the left. The 
old national air, " Vive Henri Quatre," was played 
by a hand seated on the top of the archway. The 
whole ceremony was well managed, hut tedious ; 
and whilst the regiments of the National Guard 
brought tip the rear of the procession I fell asleep. 
But I saw the procession a second time, passing 
down the Rue Richelieu to the Rue St. Honor e. 
Madame Garnerin ascended in her balloon as 
the King passed the Pont Neuf. The King did 
not reach the Tuileries until nearly six o'clock. 
He mounted on horseback when within the rails 
of the Palace Court, and bowed very gracefully, 
for a personage of his size, to the people around 
him. But the most attractive part of the show 
were the fireworks in the evening. The fa9ade 
of the Palais du Corps L6gislatif, illuminated 
with green lamps, seemed a fairy palace; and 
when the fireworks on the Pont Louis XVI. (or 
de la Concorde) began to blaze out, the Seine 
looked like a river of fire. Vast crowds were 
assembled on the terrace of the Tuileries, some 
sitting in chairs, some on the ground — not very 
orderly ; for when I was making my way to the 
front, a man, calling himself an "ancient officer," 



Chap. V. REVIEW OF ALLIED TROOPS 111 

stopped me so rudely that two others took my isu. 
part, and told m.e not to mind the man, as he 
belonged to the fallen party, an expression then 
used by almost every angry person in reference 
to his antagonist. My friends were from the 
south, and spoke of the Parisians in very dis- 
dainful terms. 

The day after the King's entry, I witnessed a 
more imposing ceremony — the passage of a por- 
tion of the victorious armies before the Court of 
Prance and the allied Sovereigns. The troops 
marched along the Quay, and the above august 
personages were at a window opposite to the 
Pont des Arts. The King was sitting in an 
armchair, and the Duchesse d'Angouleme sitting 
opposite to him. Standing between them, a little 
behind, was the Emperor of Russia : immediately 
behind Louis XVIII. stood the Emperor of Austria; 
behind the Duchess, Monsieur ; behind them were 
the King of Prussia, the Due de Berri, and others 
not distinguishable, at least not by me, although 
I was immediately opposite to the window. The 
troops that defiled were about thirty thousand, 
composed of horse, foot, and artillery ; they were 
principally Russians. I remember that almost 
all the officers of the Russian Guards appeared 
exceedingly young. The Grand Duke Constan- 
tine headed one of the regiments. The Cuiras- 
siers made a gallant show. The passage of the 
troops occupied one hour and thirty- five minutes. 
The Emperor Alexander appeared to be doing 



112 PARIS Chap. V. 

1814. the honours of the spectacle, and explaining 
particulars to the Duchesse d'Angouleme. There 
was much shouting, and I heard " Vivent les 
Allies " occasionally mingled with the cries of 
" Vive le Eoi." 

But the curiosity of curiosities was our own 
Wellington, on a white horse, in a plain hlue 
frock-coat, a white neckcloth, and a round hat. 
He was riding between General Stewart and Lord 
Castlereagh. As soon as his presence was known 
there was a great hustling and whispering. A 
friend of mine, who was in the window with the 
Sovereigns, told me that when it was first known 
he was there, the Emperors and Kings stretched 
forward to get a sight of him. I saw the Duchesse 
d'Angouleme point him out to them ; and when 
Plato w and Sacken were introduced to him, they 
would hardly let his hand go. I heard afterwards 
that Platow had said, " Had you been here we 
should have done this sooner " ; to which the 
Duke replied, " The business could not have been 
in better hands." I felt, for my own part, an 
insatiable desire to see him, and ran many chances 
of being kicked and trampled down to get near 
our great man. Two Englishmen near me showed 
as much eagerness as myself to approach him, and 
one of them as he passed by me said, " Oh, for 
God's sake, let me see him ! — I know you will 
excuse me, sir, for this ; but I must see him ! " 
A crowd gathered round him, and attended him 
to his lodgings. The Duke had just arrived in 



CHAP. V. CELBBBITIES AT A BALL 113 

Paris, after travelling four days and nights, from i8i4. 
Toulouse. I heard that he was much struck with 
the appearance of the Russian cavalry, and said 
to Sir Charles Stuart, " Well, to be sure, we can't 
turn out anything like this." Sir Charles told 
him, very truly, that they were men picked for 
the occasion.^ 

Diary. May 4. — . . . At eleven, putting on 
regimentals, I went to Sir Charles Stuart's hall 
at the H6tel de Montesquieu, where was an 
assemblage of the most noted characters now on 
the stage of the civilised world. Lord Wellington, 
the Emperor of Eussia, Marshal Bliicher, Platow, 
Prince Metternich, Schwarzenberg, Barclay de 
Tolly, Stadion, the Prussian Royal family, all 
but the King, who is ill ; the Bavarian royal 
princes, De Wrede (a common-looking fellow), 
Lord Oastlereagh, and innumerable generals ; 
Marshal Ney, and many officers of rank. I saw 
Bliicher introduced by Sir 0. Stuart to Lord 
Wellington. They held each other's hands, and 
there was a great deal of hearty smiling, but Sir 
0. Stuart seemed to interpret between them, and 
I could hear nothing said. Bliicher looked a 
little puzzled; he is thinner and taller than his 
picture would make me think, and has by no 
means an intelligent face. His mustachios he is 
fond of twirling. He kissed Lady Castlereagh's 
hand with empressement. There were Prench 
dances, English dances and waltzes. The Emperor 

^ Sir Robert Wilson in his " Memoirs " confirms tHs. 
VOL. I 15 



114 PAUIS Chap. V. 

1814. was in red, lie waltzed with La Mar^chale Ney 
and La Marechale Augereau — both nice-looking 
women. A Prench lady seeing him with the first 
said, " Quoi! toujours elle — est-ce qu'il n'y en a pas 
que four une I " He waltzes well. He took La 
Marechale Augereau from Czernichef, who retired 
from his partner before his Czar backwards, and 
with a respect and fright truly Oriental. To see 
the Emperor of All the Eiussias, the Master of the 
Caucasus and Paris, dancing at a ball given in 
the Erench capital by Sir C. Stuart, with the 
wives of the two French marshals — this was 
something ! 

Book. — But amidst all the sights and cere- 
monies of these surprising days, the fallen con- 
queror, though unseen, was not forgotten. Many 
were the tales told of his seclusion at Eontaine- 
bleau ; and it was confidently affirmed that he was 
attacked by a disorder so dangerous as to make 
his recovery very doubtful. Next to this report 
was heard the rumour that he had attempted to 
destroy himself. This story was subsequently 
discredited, and, indeed, stoutly denied. But it 
is now acknowledged to be true, and his eloquent 
apologist relates it in minute detail. 

DiART. May 5. — ^After much bustle, Grattan 
and I set off from Paris at half-past five. Dined 
at St. Denis, and went to see the cathedral. Went 
into the vault, which has been repaired and a 
new opening made to it by Napoleon. He, with 
Cardinal Maury and Marshal Duroc, visited the 



Chap. V. NAPOLEON AND ST. DENIS 115 

vault accompanied by our conductor and another isu. 
sacristan. Our man told us that Napoleon asked 
him where the body of Henry IV. had been found, 
and on receiving the answer said : " C'esf ici que 
faijix4 ma sSpuUure " ; and, indeed, in the interior 
of the same vault, in a right-hand angle of the 
wall, we saw the very spot in which he then said 
he would be laid. The wall of the arch is there 
painted a light yellow dotted with bees — his 
fleurs de lys — which are half effaced by the 
damp. Napoleon remained a quarter of an hour 
in the vault, leaving the Empress in the church 
above. He made Maury speak to him concerning 
Henry IV. and also Louis XIV., both of whom 
he highly eulogised, but on the whole seemed to 
prefer Louis XIV. This visit to the tomb of 
Henry took place on August 5, 1811. "What is 
become of the party ? One killed in battle, the 
other ejected from his cathedral chair, the hero 
himself dethroned. We went into the sacristy 
and there saw the pictures by a French artist 
which represent the history of St. Denis, begin- 
ning with the death of Dagobert, who founded it. 
Three only of the pictures are finished. The one 
at the head of the room was to have represented 
Napoleon amidst the ruins of the church giving 
orders for its reconstruction. We set off at eight ; 
travelled all night. 

May 6. — Travelled all day, delighted with the 
lovely country, and green meadows, and belts of 
woods. Arrived and dined at Montreuil-sur-Mer^ 



116 CALAIS — DOVER Chap. V. 

1814. a "walled and ditched town. Travelled all night, 
and at daybreak changed horses at Boulogne. 

May 1. — Saw on the heights the frame of the 
intended column of Buonaparte to be raised to 
the " grand army." Arrived at Calais by nine, 
and there found Lord Lowther, B;obert Milnes, 
and the Duke of Leinster, with many others who 
were going over in a lugger which was to sail 
before the packet. Lord Lowther told me that 
Platow told him he was sorry he had not burnt 
Paris, and that he disliked the French. Also 
that Bliicher told him he only wished before he 
died to see Lord Wellington 'and the Prince 
Regent. The ridicule of the pairing burst out 
so violently, that I was going to laugh in spite of 
the G.P.R. on his Lordship's buttons. Lord 
Wellington is made a duke. Graham, Hope, 
Hill, Beresford, and Sir S. Cotton — ^barons. 

Lowther told me that Metternich had said he 
would keep at peace with Napoleon for three 
years to recover the Austrian States, and then 
fall on him. Also, that he was in correspondence 
with the British Government. 

We breakfasted, and agreed, for a guinea 
apiece, to go on board the lugger, which we did 
at twelve o'clock, after little or no trouble at the 
Custom House. The wind was fair at starting, 
but veered afterwards, and we anchored. We got 
under weigh, however, again at four and arrived 
at Dover by half-past seven. The Ambassador 
from Wurtemberg to our Court was on board. He 



Chap. V. OTJSTOM-HOTJSE TROUBLES 117 

told me that Napoleon, when at Stuttgart, paid i8i4. 
great attention to the Queen, but said to her, 
talking of the war then pending in 1805, with 
Austria, " On ne peut pas repondre au juste de 
la guerre, si sa Majeste seroit chass^e d'ici, il seroit 
singulier de voir une fiUe du Roi d'Angleterre 
se r^fugier chez nous a Paris." The Ambassador 
was a count and general, and had a suite and 
secretary bearing sundry presents for the Queen 
of England; he was, to an English eye, an ordinary 
personage, but sufficiently civil. On board also 
was with us a Captain Milnes, with the despatches 
bringing the account of the fall of G-enoa. He was 
introduced for the first time in his life to Robert 
Milnes, M.P., Pontefract (1784-1858), his nearest 
relation. At landing, a scuffle ensued between 
Lord Lowther, who had a red Treasury box in his 
hand, and the Custom House officers, and my 
friend Grattan, who had a little deal box under 
his arm. Lowther was dispossessed of his box and 
pushed down. Grattan drew a sword-stick. The 
Duke, Robert Milnes, and myself, put ourselves 
into sparring attitudes, but the affray terminated 
without coming to blows. What must have been 
the surprise of his Wurtemberg Excellency at 
the sight of our nobles in the arena with the 
rabble. Lowther prudently forbore to strike ; he 
recollected folks having been trounced for resisting 
the delegates of the Douane ; but he and the 
Duke of Leinster, Milnes, and myself, trotted off 
to Stowe, the collector, who received the peers 



118 DOVER TO LONDON Chap. V. 

1814. with the utmost civility, but told me it was 
impossible to know men of rank coming in an 
open boat ; an avowal which moved the virtuous 
indignation of His Grace, one of the most spirited, 
unaffected young fellows in the world.' 

May 8. — After clearing our goods at the Custom 
House, Grattan and I set off in a post-chaise, 
leaving his Excellency of Wurtemberg complain- 
ing that he was obliged to take four horses or 
two chaises. Grattan, by the way, tried, as we 
were coming over Westminster Bridge, to make 
me own I was content with him, saying that he 
was content with me. This I could not and did 
not do. 

At Dover we saw a colonel and several other 
Prussian officers, who had come over last night 
from Calais, only to remain until this evening, 
with the intention of putting foot on English 
ground. At Rochester we saw the other foreign 
officers. I arrived unwell enough at Reilly's by 
half-past eight in the evening. Grattan parted 
with me in a sort of transport. 

May 9. — -Tom Moore called. Byron tells me 
that Jeffrey sent to Moore through a third person 
to ask him to write in the JEdinhurgh Review, and 
that he, Byron, franked back to Jeffery, Moore's 
consent. Here's a demeU; Moore and I fought 
a duel about the said Beview. Byron tried to 
insult Jeffrey about the same, and was all but 
challenged by Moore for his own poem, " English 
Bards," etc. 



Chap. V. MADAME DE STAEL 119 

Mai/ 10. — Cullen called. He told me he dined isu. 
at Sir S. E,omilly's on Saturday, where Madame 
de Stael took her leave, she going to Dover the 
next day. She appeared affected with the kind- 
ness of the English. She has left behind, however, 
several sayings which will leave her in no good 
odour here. She said of Middleton, Lord Jersey's, 
where she had been magnificently entertained : " 11 
vCy manqua du vin, il y manqua de V esprit" ; of 
the English, there are only three men of genius : 
Mackintosh, Wellesley, Canning, and, yes, there 
is a fourth : " Qelui qui a fait mon eloge." This 
story was told by Stephen Weston, an old, totter- 
ing clergyman, who has written an ode in her 
praise, and said, " I will leave you to judge who 
her fourth hero is." Of the women she said, 
" ^lles sont nulles." The only men in England 
who have any heart are, according to her, " Ward, 
and the Speaker of the House of Commons." ^ She 
must have said this in jest. 

May 12. — Rode up to London with T. Smith. 
Dined at the Royal Society Club, where Barrow 
told me that he had seen Campbell's^ journal up to 
Napoleon getting on board the Undaunted frigate 
(Captain Usher) at Frejus. Campbell says that at 
eleven o'clock on the day of quitting Fontaine- 
bleau. General Bertrand pulled out his watch, and 

' Charles Abbot. He was created Lord Colchester, and retired 
in 1816. 

^ Colonel, afterwards General Sir Neil Campbell. His journal 
was published after his death in 1869 under the title of " Napoleon 
at Fontainebleau and Elba." 



120 LONDON Chap. V. 

1814. presenting it to Napoleon, said, "It is time to 
quit this place " ; upon wMch Napoleon, much 
enraged, exclaimed, " What ! am I fallen so low 
as to he regulated hy the watch of a fellow like 
you ? " The guard hy which he was accompanied 
were his own soldiers, and. incited the people, 
where the horses were changed, to cry " Vime 
V Empereur y These were with him only as far as 
Rouen : from that place Napoleon was hissed and 
loaded with ahuse, and more than once ran the 
danger of his life. At Avignon it is true that he 
got from his carriage and went on horseback with 
a round hat and white cockade, crying, " Vive le 
Moi," and that he personated also Lord Burghersh 
and another Englishman. ... At one place the 
mob determined to pull him amongst them and 
destroy him, but a general who was guarding him 
said, " My friends, let him live ; death will not be 
a suificient punishment for his crimes." Napoleon 
said, " General, I have heard and understood you; 
I thank you." He said the Austrians and English 
had used him well, the Prussians and Russians 
were brutes. 

Dr. Woolstan told me that it is an absolute fact 
that when Macdonald and Ney came back to 
Eontainebleau with the answer of the Emperor 
Alexander, in which he had said he would not 
treat with Napoleon, they found him reviewing 
36,000 troops, and delivered the message secretly. 
"Speak out," said Napoleon; "there is nothing 
you can say that should not be heard by these 



Chap. V. NAPOLEON's LOYAL TROOPS 121 

braves." The troops, on liearing the answer, i8i4. 
offered to march under Napoleon to Paris, and cut 
their way through the allies to the capital. 
Napoleon acceded to the offer, but the marshals 
told him that there were 130,000 of the enemy, 
that 4!0,000 men would he lost in the passage, and 
what could he do with ten in a hostile city ? "I 
see it," said Napoleon, " mon role est fini." Even 
after the dethronement of Napoleon the troops 
declared they would bury themselves with their 
Emperor under the ruins of the capital. " How 
do you account," said Woolstan to me, " for 
nothing having been done ? " " Why, because 
the generals, seeing all was up, could do nothing." 
" I agree with you," rejoined the Doctor. 
Woolstan told me that he was very much struck 
with that which also surprised me, the perfect air 
of complacency and control in all the Erench 
marshals at the grand ceremony of the entry and 
afterwards. But he said, before that their faces 
had been black and downcast. They did not know 
how they should be received by the King. This 
convinces me that the Bourbons are safe. Those 
who are sulky are sulky not from old attachments, 
but present apprehensions. 

Mai/ 13. — The other evening, at Talleyrand's, 
General Elahaut and Pozzo di Borgo had, in 
presence of Talleyrand, a long argument as to the 
military talents of Napoleon. Elahaut, who had 
been his aide-de-camp up to his dethronement, 
contended that his last campaign was his master- 

VOL. I 16 



122 LONDON Chap. V. 

1814. piece, and asserted that in all he had never more 
than 75,000 troops under him and his generals, 
excepting Sonlt and Suchet from the number. 
Pozzo di Borgo said his movement to St. Denys 
was that of a madman ; he was sure to lose Paris. 
Plahaut said that the occupation of Paris by the 
allies was contemplated by Napoleon, who 
thought they would weaken their army so much 
to preserve it, that they would be more easily 
attacked afterwards. " He ought to have known 
the people were against him," rejoined Pozzo di 
Borgo. "To be sure," said Elahaut, "he did 
think Paris would have stood true to him; he 
did not take treachery into the account." He did 
not know that Talleyrand had corresponded for 
several days with the Emperor of Russia. . . . 

I heard the other day that Madame de Stael, 
having neglected the Bourbons altogether, was 
the first to compliment Louis XVIII. She had 
an interview with Madame d'Angouleme, to whom 
she said, " J'espfere que votre altesse royale a 6crit 
tons vos tourments et souffrances, ou du moins 
que vous avez une bonne m^moire pour que vous 
'puissiez donner a quelqu'un les details de tout ce 
qui vous est arriv6 dans le Temple. II faut que 
quelque plume conservasse le souvenir de ces 
moments cruels si int^ressants pour I'histoire de 
Prance." The Duchess was so aflPected that she 
left the room, and it is said that Madame de Stael 
was left out at the grand f^te given to the Prench 
King and Princess the other day at Carlton House 



Chap. V. AT LADY JEKSEt's 123 

purposely, because the Princess made the request. i8i4. 
Madame is gone out of the kingdom in an un- 
conquerable fury thereat. . . . 

Book. — During this season I saw more of the 
London world than I had ever seen before. I 
associated with most of the remarkable men of 
the day, and had no reason to complain of neglect 
from either of the dominant political parties. 

DiAKY. May 16. — Met a nephew of Dr. Price's. 
He told a story of his uncle's, who related of 
an old woman that she having heard the greater 
the sinner the greater the saint, said she wished 
she had known it forty years ago. 

May 18. — At eleven o'clock Byron took me to 
Lady Jersey's, where was a small party of 100 
perhaps. I stood in terror at the doorway a long 
time. Cut two or three good friends out of fear, 
and was quite cool with several others out of pure 
despair — the courage of despair. I was introduced 
to Lady Jersey : she said she was very glad to 
see me. There also was the hereditary Prince 
of Orange, a very thin, ill-looking young man. 
He was in a plain suit, with the star of the 
black eagle of Prussia, and was introduced to 
Lord Byron at the very moment he (Byron) 
introduced me to Lady Jersey, which caused a 
contretemps. He danced afterwards a Prench 
dance, the battas, in which Frederick Douglas 
and Colonel Stanhope performed wretchedly, and 



124 LONDON Chap. V. 

1814. the only tolerable male performer was the 
Marquis of Worcester, with his moustachios and 
bit of hair on his chin, dancing with his intended 
bride, the black-eyed Miss Eitzroy. I talked a 
long time with Lady Westmoreland, who asked 
me about Burghersh, and said, " Speak out, 
although he is my son. I have not seen him to 
speak to for eight years, and probably shall not 
speak to him again as long as I live." She told 
me that Madame de Stael told her that the 
Prince of Wales had used her shamefully, after 
she had made such sacrifices for him and 
had refrained from visiting his wife, " laquelle 
elle desiroit tant voir." I had much talk, 
and sat at supper next to Lady Tavistock and 
her sister. Lady Caroline Stanhope. The latter 
told me that the Princess Charlotte of Wales, 
whose occasional companion and partner she is at 
the Warwick House balls, keeps the Prince of 
Orange's portrait (miniature) in a tea-cup on 
the chimney-piece. She saw the first interview 
between the intended pair. The Princess told her 
not to look at her for fear she should laugh 
outright. 

I stayed to supper. Lady Harrowby, who sat 
opposite to me, assured me that Count Meerfeldt 
told her that the Empress Maria Louisa was only 
prevented from joining Napoleon by order from 
her father, and that she was devotedly attached 
to him. 

May 19.— Dined at the Stevens Coffee House with 



Chap. V. KEAN AS OTHELLO 125 

Irvine at five o'clock. Went with Byron and Tom i8i4. 
Moore to the Orchestra to see Kean in Othello. 
Por two acts and a half the play was tame, but 
from the sentence, " Not a jot," he displayed his 
extraordinary powers, and, as Byron said, threw 
a sort of Levant, fury of expression into his 
actions and face, to which we Orientalists had been 
accustomed, and which we could appreciate. His 
stabbing himself was a masterpiece. After the 
play we three went into the Green Room, a small 
apartment, with a large glass and sofa round it, 
not green. Miss Poole, Mrs. Bland, Knight, 
Munden (as Jemmy Turnips, most ridiculously 
dressed), and Miss Kells came in and sat down 
quite quietly, with a composure which, compared 
with their strange figures, seemed ludicrous 
enough. At going out, however, I observed Knight 
rehearsing grimaces before the glass. Raymond 
was in plain clothes and was master of the 
ceremonies to our party. Tom Moore seemed 
known to all, and all were " hail-fellow-well-met " 
with him. Munden asked him after Mrs. Moore. 
The said lady, be it remembered, was an actress, 
but, as Moore says by way of consolation, was 
only once on the stage. 

Miss Smith, who had been acting Desdemona, 
came in : she is certainly an odd likeness of 
Lady Tavistock. She said that Kean affected 
her very much in his Othello. She could not 
help crying. She said also that he is a very 
kind and encouraging actor to play with. 



126 LONDON Chap. V. 

1814. which she hinted to be a desideratum on the 
stage. 

Kean came in a pepper-and-salt suit, a very 
short man, but strongly made and wide-shouldered, 
hollow, sallow face, thick black hair. Lord Byron 
was introduced to him, and on some compliment 
from him, said he was proud of his Lordship's 
approbation. Douglas Kinnaird introduced me. 
I asked him after his health, which, he said, was 
tolerable, but that he sometimes found his voice 
fail him. He has a sweet accent and manner. He 
soon withdrew. . . . 

May 20. — Walked to Hamilton Place, where I 
breakfasted with Lord and Lady Tavistock. 

I dined with Cuthbert and sat next to Miss 
Mercer at dinner. On my right was William 
Howard. Lord Auckland was there and distin- 
guished me most pointedly. I had never seen 
him before, but he, at parting, said, " I am sorry, 
sir, I have had no greater opportunity of culti- 
vating your acquaintance." 

Before the evening broke up I had a long 
conversation with young Lygon, a Westminster 
man of the Horse Guards. He told me that the 
passage of the Adour river was a great exploit, 
the river being broader than the Thames at West- 
minster, and the enemy in possession of the opposite 
bank. He said that Lord Wellington had declared 
that if the Cortes hesitated in receiving Ferdinand 
VII. he could put him on the throne at the head 
of his army. He spoke of Lord Fitzroy Somerset, 



Chap. V. A SUSPECTED THIEF 127 

my friend, as a fortunate man, but one who had 1814. 
not a word to say to Wellington, or ever read 
a despatch except a very public one indeed. 

May 21. — Dined at Lord Sidmouth's ; here met 
Miss Bankes, Lord Tyrconnel, Lord Redesdale, 
Lady Donegal, Charles Grant, and Bankes, be- 
tween whom and his charming daughter I sat. 
He is a dull dog ; Miss Bankes most lively 
and entertaining. She told with a great deal 
of humour a story of a young man suspected of 
picking pockets at Lady Stafford's rout last night. 
He was very ugly, and therefore fixed upon. Lord 
Stafford sent to know who had invited him. He 
said, " Lady Stafford." Lady Stafford was called, 
and denied ever having seen him, although he 
said he was first in her rooms that night, and had 
spoken to her before. Her ladyship said if he was 
the man he pretended to be, she did not know 
he was in England, but thought he had been two 
years in Ireland. How it ended I know not. 
Miss Bankes is very lovely and clever, but a little 
odd. She talked to me of heart in a manner 
charmingly cool and indifferent. 

May 25. — Dined at five o'clock with Lord Tavis- 
tock in Hamilton Place ; Sir Robert Adair, Lord 
Harrington, Lord W. Eussell, and his wife. There 
is something desperately dull in a formal 
dinner. . . . 

At seven we went to the play and sat in 
Tavistock's box, where we found Lady B. A. 
Cowper, Lord Bath, etc. Lady B. A. Cowper 



128 LONDON Chap. V. 

1814. has a great fortune. Slie is queer but not pretty, 
and is apparently very lively. Lord Bath, seems 
a solemn fool ; Lord Harrington a gentlemanlike, 
sensible common-place. Adair I like more and 
more, and Lady and Lord Tavistock. 

3Iay 26. — Alston called and talked to me of the 
club at Arthur's, and the dinner there. He ob- 
jected to the old cook of that establishment 
because he never gave them a joint. " Now," 
said he, " one likes to have the choice of a joint 
whether one chooses to cut or not." It surprises 
me to recollect with what gravity I joined in this 
apophthegm. However, I believe I shall end 
where poor A. has begun — lacking passions, aided 
by or causing a thousand conflicting schenaes for 
useless notoriety, will bring me down to talk 
of joints likewise. 

June 1. — I called on Byron, and, dressing with- 
out dining, went to the Duke of Bedford's box 
at Coven't Glarden, where were Lord and Lady 
Petersham,^ Lord W. Russell, and Prank Stan- 
hope. Petersham is a man of most polished 
manners and kind. Prank Stanhope I don't like, 
a mcmvais naturel though very good-humoured. 
We saw Mrs. Jordan act Lady Teazle for the last 
night of her engagement. . . . 

Went to a party and supper at Lady Jersey's. 
I was too late for the conjuring, which had already 

' Lord Petersham succeeded his father as fourth Earl of Harring- 
ton in 1829. Lady Petersham was a daughter of Samuel Foote 
the actor. 



Chap. V. ANECDOTES OP NAPOLEON 129 

taken place, but came in time to be introduced isu. 
to the wonder of the evening, General Oram,^ or 
some such name, by Lady Melbourne. The Gene- 
ral was one of those who accompanied Napoleon 
from Pontainebleau to Elba, and is just returned. 
He mentioned that Napoleon travelled night and 
day, except, I think, two nights ; that during the 
journey by land he was somewhat pensive and 
apparently unwell, but that when on board the 
Undaunted frigate he was assez gai. When 
in Prance he was in considerable danger, and had 
he passed through Marseilles would have been 
torn to pieces. 

Book. — He mentioned that, near Aix in Pro- 
vence, Napoleon was in danger of personal violence 
from the populace, assumed a disguise, and passed 
himself off for an English commissary. Sitting 
at table opposite to the general officer, he had hold 
of a bottle of champagne, but, seeing the hostess 
looking hard at him, he passed the wine to the 
General, and asked him submissively for a glass of 
it Afterwards the hostess, taking him for an 
Englishman, talked to him for a long time, abus- 
ing Buonaparte, and telling what she would do 
if she had him in her power. Napoleon told this 
himself, with much good humour, to the general 
officer. Napoleon and his escort arrived at Pr6jus 
on May 4, 1814. On October 8, 1799, he had 

^ Probably Colonel Cram, aide-de-camp to Prince Schwartzenberg, 
who accompanied the Austrian Commissioners during the journey 
to Elba. 

VOL. I 17 



130 LONDON Chap. V. 

I 

1814. landed there on his return from Egypt. His 
thoughts naturally recurred to former days ; and 
once during this journey my informant heard 
him say, " It is curious enough ; I recollect that 
this very day of the month many years ago I 
was ordered by the Government to shoot two men 
for wearing the white cockade — je les ai sauves, 
those mountains put me in mind of it." 

DiAE,T. June 1. — Napoleon was well received at 
Elba ; he has from four to five hundred of the old 
guard with him. Before he quitted Eontainebleau 
he was heard to say, addressing himself, I think, 
to General Elahaut, " Believe me, I had rather 
be master of Elba than of diminished France." 

The poor General was questioned to death. The 
Prince of Orange danced in his regimentals. 
Caroline Lamb marked me out for all sorts of 
attentions. She would insist on taking me home 
in her carriage and setting me down at my own 
door. Her maid was with her. She told me 
Madame de Stael used to embrace her very often, 
and seemed to like it very much. 

June 2. — I went to breakfast with young Leigh, 
whose sister, Olaughton^ (who bought Byron's 
estate), has married, and who has travelled in the 
Levant, in Albania, the Morea, and particularly 
in Egypt. In this latter place he was ten months, 
three of which he passed shut up in Rosetta, for 

^ He agreed to buy Newstead, but being unable to complete the 
purchase he forfeited his deposit of £25,000, and the transfer never 
took place. 



Chap. V. TRAVELS UP THE NILE 131 

fear of the plague. He travelled a thousand is 14. 
miles above Alexandria, and went a hundred and 
seventy-five miles up the Nile above Philse and 
the first cataract, which is in Nubia, and a 
country hitherto entirely unexplored. Arrow- 
smith has made out a course from his bearings 
of the Nile and the names of the places which 
he visited. These are close in each side to the 
river, and amount to forty, at ten of which he 
saw ancient ruins, some of them most magnificent 
and highly painted, chiefly in red and blue. The 
capital of the country is Der, no great way from 
Ilrim, the town of their journey, containing 
perhaps thirty thousand inhabitants. It was built 
in avast wood of palm-trees. The houses are only 
naked mud walls, a little less than the height 
of a man, without roofs, and having branches 
and leaves of palm for shelter and for beds. The 
King's house alone has a sort of roof, and is of two 
storeys ; so that I presume that in no other country 
in the world is there such a real distance between 
the King and his subjects. The people cannot in- 
crease the comfort of their habitation without the 
King's permission, even if they have the inclina- 
tion and power. A decisive and cruel tyranny ! 

The Nile of the first cataract is not bigger than 
the Thames at Windsor. The cataract is not a 
fall, but a spot where some huge granite masses, 
rising at the side of the stream, confine the passage 
of the river. It is not passable by boats. The 
people in Nubia are very tawny, and not far 



132 LONDON Chap. V. 

1814. from black. Leigh gave tlie King of Der a 
sword, and the King in return gave him a black 
boy ten years of age, whom Leigh gave to his 
companion, Mr. Smelt. Messrs. Leigh and Smelt 
travelled in their European dresses with no other 
Christian attendants than an American settled in 
Egypt, who served them as dragoman. They took 
boat at Cairo with thirteen boatmen, Arabs of 
that city, and proceeded up the river, making 
excursions on asses sometimes, sometimes on 
dromedaries, along the banks. They were fur- 
nished with a passport from Ali Pasha of Egypt, 
no less powerful than his namesake of Jannina, 
who, from being master of a pirate boat in the 
Archipelago, has raised himself to supreme power, 
and is the Pasha who retook Mecca from the 
Wahaubees. He is not forty years of age ; cruel, 
bold, and clever. His son, Ibrahim, is a monster, 
roasting his rebels. 

Messrs. Leigh and Smelt were nearly lost by 
their curiosity to see a mummy pit, six hours 
from the Nile. They mounted their asses, and, 
proceeding across the plain, saw four men burning 
charcoal, who very eagerly accompanied them to 
the pit. The party lighted their candles and 
crawled in. Their guides were ignorant of the 
turnings. As they were making an effort to go 
through a grotto, Mr. Leigh saw the candle of 
the guide before him go out, and heard a rattle 
in the throat of the man, who instantly fell. 
Mr. Leigh, by the light of the torch borne, by 



Chap. V. AN ADVENTUEB ON THE NILE 133 

the other Arab, who jumped forward to help his isu. 
friend, saw only a quivering of his legs, and at 
the same instant the candle of the second guide 
went out, and the man dropped dead upon his 
companion. Mr. Leigh and Mr. Smelt kept hack 
the third Arab, and by the most happy chance 
came back to the chamber. At this time Mr. 
Leigh tells me that his heart seemed as if it would 
burst, and his head was swelled with blood. By 
putting together the notices which each of the 
three had made of the turnings, the party con- 
trived to extricate themselves just as they were 
exhausted and ready to give up the attempt. 

The Arab was more affected than the Europeans, 
and for more than a day afterwards appeared to 
be dying. The traveller told the man whom they 
had left at the mouth of the pit that his com- 
panions would soon return, and thought it most 
prudent to make the best of their way through 
the village across the plain to their boat, which 
they reached by ten at night, having begun their 
excursion at four in the morning. 

At daybreak they proceeded on their journey 
up the river. They had not proceeded two hours 
when they found five Turkish horsemen scouring 
the plain, and a shot from one of these folks 
convinced them that they were the object of their 
search. They left their boatmen with orders to 
pull their boat to the town whilst they accom- 
panied the horsemen. Entering the town, they 
found the Governor sitting onjhis mud divan in 



134 LONDON Chap. V. 

1814. due form, surrounded with thirty or forty clamor- 
ous Arabs of Amabdi, who called for justice on 
the murderers. The Grovernor seemed to second 
their views, but he told the travellers to come 
with him into an inner chamber, and then altering 
his tone at once, and showing his friendly dis- 
position, said, " I cannot protect you ; I have only 
thirty Turks here; save yourselves by flight." 
Accordingly the three escaped by a back door to 
the riverside, and getting into their boat made 
all haste up the stream. They had pulled along 
six hours when they saw several hundred horse- 
men approaching the hill. The whole party had 
made every preparation for defence ; our travellers 
thought their only resource was to return to their 
friend the Grovernor. There they found three or 
four hundred of Amabdi with the relatives of the 
deceased guides in mourning, demanding venge- 
ance on the murderers. The American interpreter, 
as the only course, now tried threats in his turn. 
This courageous talk having the desired efPect, 
the travellers as they saw their opponents waver 
talked still more loudly, and at last prevailed, for 
the Grovernor proposed that they should redeem 
themselves by a present, to which sacrifice, although 
they thought it at first not wise to accede, they at 
last consented and paid what was required. From 
this moment the Arabs became their unreserved 
friends, and treated them afterwards as if they 
had forgotten the whole transaction. Here the 
story ends. 



Chap. V. R. B. SHERIDAN 135 

June 2. — The guns have fired half an hour ago isu. 
for some news, they say the Treaty of Peace being , 
signed. 

Book. — On Saturday, June 4, I dined with 
Lord Tavistock in Hamilton Place. The guests 
were E.. B. Sheridan, the Duke of Graf ton, 
Lord and Lady Jersey, Lord Kinnaird, my friend 
Douglas Kinnaird, Lord Byron, Lord Albemarle, 
Sir Robert Adair, and Lady E.ancliffe. Mr. 
Sheridan hardly opened his mouth at dinner, 
except to correct Adair, when he said that 
Richardson had written The Runaway. " It was 
the Fugitive" said Sheridan. Lord Kinnaird said 
that there were ' several horseflesh ordinaries in 
Paris, provided for the Cossacks. This was the 
nearest approach to anything amusing that was 
said during dinner by any of these very clever 
men. After dinner Sheridan opened a little. My 
friend Douglas Kinnaird told a story, rather too 
long, about Mrs. Siddons and Kean acting together 
at some Irish theatre. Kean got drunk, and Mrs. 
Siddons got all the applause. The next night 
Kean acted JaflEier, and Mrs. Siddons, Belvidera, 
and then " he got all the applause," and, said 
Sheridan, " she got drunk, I suppose." Sheridan 
told us several stories of Kean, then at the height 
of his fame. Some one made Kean a present of 
a fine horse, on which he was prancing along the 
Strand. "Take care," said a friend ; "you are a 
good actor, but " " But what?" asked Kean ; 



136 I/ONDON Chap. V. 

1814. " you don't know that I was paid £30 for breaking 
three horses last year at Brighton." Another time, 
a friend, hearing he was about to give readings of 
Milton between the acts, at Drury Lane, said, 
" Kean, stick to Shakespeare ; don't meddle with 
Milton." "Why not?" asked Kean; "I gave 
readings from Milton three times a week at 
Exmouth." As a proof of the universality of his 
genius, it was mentioned that he had been a 
fencing-master and a dancing-master, and at 
Jersey had announced that he should quit the 
stage and set up a school. He told Mr. Sheridan 
that when a child he had been applied to in order 
to bring him out as a rival to Master Betty ; but 
that Sheridan had interposed, saying, " No ! one 
bubble at a time is enough ; if you have two, they 
will knock against each other, and burst." Kean 
was, indeed, once advertised to come out as a 
young B/Oscius at Sadler's Wells. Mr. Sheridan 
told us that Kean applied to Michael Kelly to 
lend him two pounds that he might take a place 
in the stage coach and quit London for ever, 
having then some quarrel with Elliston, and being 
convinced that he never should succeed on the 
London stage. Kelly answered that he would 
lend him two pounds or twenty pounds, but not 
to enable him to quit London. "He ought to 
try his hand once more." He did so, and the 
result was complete success. Lord Grey was one 
of the last to be a convert to his style, but at last 
he was one of his warmest admirers. Sheridan 



ohap. V. Sheridan's stories 137 

and Sir Eobert Adair said that Charles Pox had isu. 
been an admirer of Master Betty, and Lord 
Kinnaird mentioned that Fox had said to him 
that the young Eioscius was not quite equal to 
Garrick in Hamlet, but certainly was the next 
best to him. 

Sheridan told us that when Mr. Pox went to 
see the Gamester, there appeared, in the next 
morning's newspapers, paragraphs stating how 
much the great profligate orator had been affected, 
and how bitterly he had wept. " Whereas," said 
Mr. Sheridan, " the truth was, Pox listened, as 
was his custom, attentively ; and when Beverley, 
in the play, said that he would borrow money 
upon the reversion of his uncle's estate. Pox 
turned to me and whispered, ' Bather odd, hey, 
that he had not thought of that before.' This 
was true enough," continued Sheridan, "for the 
plot turns upon this very reversion." Mr. Sheridan 
mentioned of Garrick that he delighted in vulgar 
illustrations ; and when he gave Sheridan, on 
making over the property of the theatre, a list of 
the actors and actresses, remarked, " I have kept 
many of them on the list who might as well not 
have been there ; but if there is another dumpling 
in the pot the fat will boil over." Coming to the 
name of Mrs. Siddons, Garrick said, "You can 
spare her ; she will never do anything : that's 
certain." 

Mr. Sheridan seemed to be angry with the new 
theatre at Drury Lane : he had never been to see 

VOL. I 18 



138 LONDON Chap. V. 

1814. it ; he would not even go to see Liston act. 
Talking of Cumberland, he said that he had 
drawn the character of Sir Fretful Plagiary partly 
from that writer, and he quoted several passages 
intended to apply to him, especially that about 
attacking a friend ; this he wrote with reference 
to Cumberland's abuse of himself (Sheridan) in 
the St. James's Chronicle, at the time that he was 
making great efforts for Cumberland at Drury 
Lane. He did not, however, intend that Parsons 
should dress after Cumberland, which that actor 
did, and so enraged Cumberland's son, a youth in 
the Guards, that he applied to General O'Hara to 
call Sheridan out. The General dissuaded the 
young gentleman from it, and afterwards men- 
tioned the fact to Sheridan himself. Mr. Sheridan 
confessed that he had borrowed the " dead lock " 
in the Critic from Jephson's Bragomza, where it is 
given almost verbatim. Sheridan repeated a part 
of the scene. Jephson tried to avenge himself by 
writing an abusive Prologue against the author of 
the Critic. Mr. Sheridan told us of Mr. Richard 
Cavendish, who had a trick of swinging his arm 
round when talking, that, walking up Bond Street 
with a friend, he found, on stopping, that he had 
drawn seven hackney coaches to him. 

Diary. Jime 14. — We were called away early 
to the ladies, and poor Sheridan took a full 
bumper of Madeira by himself. He looks well, 
however, with a very red face. 



Chap. V. ARRIVAL OP THE CZAB 139 

I was introduced before dinner, and lie took me i8i4. 
by tbe hand and asked kindly after my father, 
and said he had spent several pleasant days at 
Whitton. He is different from what I took him 
to be, and a good deal of the complexion of the 
modern wits ; dry, circumspect, sarcastic, and 
selfish in his talk, without the least of that 
" abandon " which I thought a great wit might 
venture to indulge in. He looked hard at Lady 
Jersey. I own he is vastly above every other 
man I ever met, in talk, as everybody is ready to 
laugh, which is a great encouragement. 

I went to the Opera and sat in Miss Mercer's 
box. I was introduced to Mrs. George Lamb. I 
had the utmost bore and difficulty in getting away 
with them to their carriage. 

June 6. — The Emperor and the King of Prussia, 
who were expected yesterday, not yet come. 
Called on Byron ; the streets and Kent Eoad 
lined with people expecting Alexander and 
[Frederick. 

Jtme 7. — The Emperor of Russia arrived at the 
Pulteney Hotel, secretly, at two o'clock, and the 
King of Prussia, secretly, at three o'clock ; but at 
four and five all the streets in the direction of the 
Kent Road were full of good folks to see the 
Sovereigns. St. James's Street was full from top 
to bottom. This was the more extraordinary as 
the Emperor had been bowing to the populace out 
of the Pulteney Hotel. One part of London 
seemed a mass of moving populace. The mob 



140 LONDON Chap. V. 

1814. pursued every carriage, especially wlien it had a 
Cossack or dragoon behind it. 

I rode down to Whitton at five. Being unable 
to pass by the Pulteney Hotel, went back, and so 
through the Park, finding it very difficult to pass 
also by the stable-yard, the King of Prussia being 
at York House. 

Bliicher arrived at six. The mob burst into 
Carlton House lower rooms to see him, and it 
is said some actually got into the carriage with 
him when he went from Carlton House to his 
lodging. 

June 9. — Biode up to London, which I found, as 
before, in a ferment ; the Emperor and the King 
were at Carlton House. I saw them come back, 
the Emperor half an hour before the King, in 
a carriage with a strong escort behind, and dis- 
tinguished by a horseman carrying a banner. 
The King also had a man carrying a banner. I 
saw Castlereagh and Liverpool in one carriage 
with their blue ribbons, bowing to the mob. All 
was perfect good humour. The Mayor and 
Aldermen were laughed at. One fellow said, 
" Make room for the Lord Mayor's coach. God 
knows but he may lose his dinner." 

Book. — The first occupation of Paris, in 1814, 
by the allies, and the restoration of Louis XVI 1 1., 
turned the brains of my fellow-countrymen, and 
the visit of the Sovereigns to London completed 
their bewilderment. 



Chap. V. AT THE OPERA 141 

Diary. June 9. — I dined with, the Princess of I814. 
Wales — a most melancholy affair. Took leave, 
not unwillingly, and went to the Opera. The 
Princess of Prussia and Bliicher were there. 
There was great clapping. I did not stay for 
the ballet, which did not begin until past 
twelve. 

Went to Byron's, who took me to Lady 
Lansdowne's, where was a party with some of 
the foreigners : Metternich and General Colure,^ 
who just came from Elba, and says Napoleon 
behaved much to his honour throughout the whole 
journey to his retreat. 

Book. June 11. — Scrope B. Davies called. He 
tells me he won last night, at Wattier's, £6,065 
at Macao. . . Dined at the Oocoa-Tree. Went to 
the Opera, and in Miss Mercer's box met Miss 
M., Lady L. Grey, and two of Adams's sons; 
Lord and Lady Grey and Mr. Tierney came in 
afterwards. The next two boxes were thrown 
into one, for the Emperor Alexander, the King 
of Prussia, and the Prince Biegent. The house 
was crammed to excess. The newspapers say that 
two thousand people got in without paying, owing 
to the press at the doors. The boxes were all as 
full as they could hold. At ten the Boyal party 
came in, and there was great clapping. " God 
save the King " was sung, and every one stood 

' Probably General Koller, the Austrian who accompanied 
Napoleon to Elba. 



142 LONDON Chap. V. 

1814, up ; and never did eye see a finer sight than the 
rows above rows of beautiful women that then 
appeared in all their glory. The Princess of Wales 
came a little later, and, somehow or the other, 
not very opportunely, for the applause was more 
than equivocal. However, the Royal party got 
up, and bowed towards the box, without, however, 
as it seemed to me, directing their salutations 
to the Princess. The Duke of Devonshire came 
in, and led Miss Mercer to the opposite box to 
see them. I should not wonder if it was a 
match. ^ I went away to Lady Tavistock's box 
and had a full sight of all the box of kings, 
which, excepting the blue King of Prussia, was 
one blaze of red. The Emperor was on the left 
of the Regent, the King on the right; Lord 
Liverpool was standing behind the Regent ; Lord 
Castlereagh was in the corner, near the King; 
Colonel Mellish stood behind, between the Em- 
peror and the Regent; immediately behind the 
Emperor was a Russian oflS.cer of state : the back 
of the box was occupied by oflS.cers in red. The 
Emperor and the King wore the insignia of the 
Garter. The Prince Regent made a sad contrast 
to the healthy-looking monarchs between whom 
he sat, and, to say the truth, seemed apprehensive 
of some collision between himself and his wife. 
Trainezzani acted Aristodemo, and, after the opera, 
he and Grassini sang a long-winded occasional 

' Miss M., being an heiress, was given to more than one of our great 
folks. 



Chap. V. AT HOLLAND HOUSE 143 

address to the Sovereigns, during the performance isu. 
of which the audience stood up. 

June 12, Sunday. — I rode in the Park at three, 
where there was a tremendous crowd to see the 
Emperor and the King on horseback, preceded by 
Colonel Mellish, and the Duke of Montrose in 
his blue ribbon. An immense train of men on 
horseback followed. The well-dressed multitude 
made a pleasing sight. The crowd pressed upon 
the Monarchs to shake and kiss their hands, which 
they were obliged to hold up high, to prevent 
their being seized at every step. The crowds 
followed the whole way. The Princess Charlotte 
was in her carriage, and the Emperor gallantly 
rode up to speak to her twice. 

I went in Byron's carriage at seven, and dined 
at Holland House. There I met Miss Pox, and 
Martin Archer Shee, the painter and poet. There, 
too, was Kean, a very handsome little man, with 
a mild but marked countenance, and eyes as 
brilliant as on the stage. He knitted his brows, 
I observed, when he could not exactly make out 
what was said. There, also, was Grattan. We 
sat down to dinner, when in came Major Stanhope 
and Lord Ebrington. Kean ate most perti- 
naciously with his knife, and was a little too 
frequent with ladyships and lordships, as was 
natural in him; but Shee was ten times worse. 
At dinner I sat next to Lady Holland. She 
talked to me about Spain, and said that the 



144 LONDON Chap. V. 

1814. Cortes had acted so foolishly that their present 
fate was not to be wondered at. They had given 
no superior eligibility to the nobles or the clergy 
for their body, but only an equal share with the 
rest. They had copied the Brissotine constitution, 
without knowing the vast difference between the 
Prench and Spanish nations. She observed that 
Mr. Allen had endeavoured to convince Arguelles 
of the folly of their proceedings, and had drawn 
up for them a short programme for their future 
guidance. I endeavoured to listen to Lady 
Holland, and also to Lord Holland, who was 
telling how he and Grenville, and Grey, and 
Erskine had been received on the Saturday by 
the Emperor Alexander, who had sent for them 
to the Pulteney Hotel. Lord Holland said that 
the crowd pressed very inconsiderately into the 
hotel, and, to his surprise. Lady E. Whitbread was 
amongst them. Adair and Lord Morpeth waited 
below, and complained of the length of time 
the Emperor had kept his visitors. 

When introduced, the Emperor said, " Vous 
6tes Milord Erskine. Voici une lettre pour vous 
de la part de Monsieur La Harpe." Erskine said, 
" I know your Imperial' Majesty understands 
English, so I will not try to speak Erench." 
Alexander was pleased at this. He told Erskine 
he had followed him through his speech on 
Hardy's trial, and passed some compliments on 
it. Erskine was about to enter into a long 
account of it, but, seeing Lord Grenville, who 



Chap. Y. AT HOLLAND HOtJSE 145 

could not be much pleased with some of the isu. 
details, stopped himself. The Emperor told his 
visitors that he thought an Opposition was an 
excellent thing for the country ; but he added 
that political animosity should not be carried 
beyond the walls of Parliament, alluding, as his 
hearers thought, to his never having seen them at 
the Carlton House parties. He said he had been 
much struck in England with the dress and the 
air d'aisance apparent in everybody. He had 
seen no people as yet. 

I could not catch any more of Lord Holland's 
story, as Lady Holland kept me in play with 
talking of the exceeding melancholy, as she called 
it, of our English houses. She disliked the uni- 
formity of our habitations, and liked a shop and 
a palace ranged alternately, with the merchandise 
painted on the windows. 

Shee talked a great deal ; I thought, too much. 
Lady H. asked Kean why all the actors said, 
"Give me the hand," as if "thy" were "the." 
Kean said that he never pronounced it so. Kean 
said that " lago was three lengths longer than 
Othello." A length is forty-two lines. Lord 
Holland mentioned that he had seen a letter from 
a midshipman on board the Undaunted frigate, 
in which Napoleon sailed to Elba. The boy said 
that " Boney was so good-humoured, and laughed 
and talked, and was so agreeable, but said that the 
world had been under a great mistake in thinking 
him a clever man; he was just like anybody else." 

VOL. 1 19 



l46 LONDOIf Chap. V. 

1814. When the women went the conversation turned 
on public speaking. Grattan gave us a specimen 
of Lord Chatham's way, which, he said, was 
colloquial, and, when he saw him, leaning on his 
crutch, and sometimes dozing ; but, when roused 
by opposition, overpoweringly eloquent. He was, 
however, inferior to modern speakers. Pitt, his 
son, was a better rhetorician. Lord Holland told 
us that Pox once said to him that Sheridan's 
speech on the Begums was the finest ever heard 
in Parliament. Lord H. asked him if his own 
speech on the Peace was not as good. " That was 
a damned good speech, too," was the ingenuous 
reply of this truly great man. Pox used to praise 
Pitt's speech on the Slave-trade as a fine specimen 
of eloquence. 

Lord Holland said he had met with a word in 
Pope that he could not understand, 

A hat that never veiled to human pride.^ 

When we went to the ladies the conversation 
was addressed to Kean. Lady Holland asked him 
if he was not a capital " Scrub." Kean replied 
that he had not the slightest acquaintance with 
the part; indeed, he was no comedian, except, 
perhaps, that he could play Tyke in the School 

' This quotation occurs in the "Dunciad," Book iv., lines 205, 206, 
and refers to the Quakers, to whom " Hat worship," as they called it, 
was an abomination ; yet where it was necessary to pay the respect 
of taking off the hat (as in Courts of Justice and the House of 
Commons) they permitted their adherents to uncover in order to 
avoid offence. To veil means to " let fall," " to suffer," " to descend.' " 



Chap. V. &RATTAN 147 

of Reform, whicli was a sort of sentimental 1814. 
character. Lord Ebrington and Major Stanhope 
left us, and then G-rattan began to give us, in his 
inimitably grotesque, forcible, and theatrical 
manner, the characters of some Irishmen who had 
figured at the end of the last century. He spoke 
of Perring as a great man. Lord Clare, he said, 
was to be intimidated, although he had fought, 
and fought well, too. Lord Holland had pre- 
viously mentioned that he had heard Lord Oar- 
hampton say of a speech of Lord Clare's, " Every 
word of the noble Lord's speech is a lie from 
beginning to end — a great lie." He qualified this 
by saying, " He might perhaps mean it to be 
understood as a lie " ; but both Grattan and Lord 
Holland observed that such an expression would 
not be tolerated nowadays. Grattan then broke 
out against many well known in his day. He 
said that Lord Bellamont, in person, was like a 
black bull, always butting. He was cursed with 
a talent for imitation, and selected some one bad 
habit from each of his friends, so that he was 
a compound of vicious qualities, or, at least, 
disagreeable manners. One of these friends 
always stood with his toes in — Bellamont did the 
same ; another wore black stockings and dirty 
brown breeches — Bellamont copied this also. He 
wore his wig half off his head, in imitation of 
some one else; and, in speaking, he took off the 
bad manner of some other acquaintance. He had 
a watery elocution, spoke through the nose, and 



148 LONDON Chap. V. 

1814. had a face totally insensible to everything he was 
saying. Mr. Grattan added that he thought 
Bellamont's wig was dirtier than Gurran's hair. 
He said a deal of a Dr. Lucas, and finished his 
sketch of him by saying, " When he rose to speak 
in Parliament, he had not a friend in the House ; 
when he sat down, he had spoken so ill that he 
had not an enemy." 

During this exhibition Lord Holland and myself 
were in convulsions of laughter. Kean, notwith- 
standing every effort, roared outright. Lady 
Holland gave way, and Miss Fox was in ecstasy. 
He kept us in this way until half-past eleven, 
when he took me in his carriage to the Princess 
of Wales. He was muttering to himself, and 
slapping his thigh during our ride, and twisting 
about into many odd shapes and forms — antics 
not worth recording, except when it is recollected 
who Mr. Grattan had been, and, indeed, was, at 
the time I was with him. 

When we arrived at Gonna ught Place many of 
the company, including Dr. Parr and Mr. G. 
North, had gone; but Mr. Whitbread was there, 
and to him I was introduced by Lady Gharlotte 
Gampbell. This was my first interview with that 
eminent man. 

Diary. Jvme 13. — Dined with Lord Stafford, 
and went to a ball at Lord Gholmondeley's, where 
the Emperor waltzed with Miss Bessy Eawdon, 
Lady Jersey, and some one else, and picked up 
Bessy's fan, which was much remarked; leaning 



Chap. V. THE ROTAL SOCIETY 149 

behind her chair at supper, where he would not isu. 
sit down but for five minutes. 

June 14. — Called on Byron. . . Went, malgre 
moi, at half -past eleven with Lord Byron to Lady 
EanclifEe's, where was a small party. I was intro- 
duced to Poodle Byng and Mrs. Rawdon, who 
gave me a long inventory of her daughter's 
accomplishments. The charming Bessy was in 
the room. . . . 

June 16. — S. B. Davies called and told me that 
" Vox Populi " is to be perused by the King's 
A.-Greneral ; also he made me take a resolution 
of standing for the University of Cambridge in the 
event of Palmerston's being made a peer. Come 
what will, come what may, I am determined to 
try, and have accordingly commenced operations. 

I dined at the Royal Society Club, and in 
the evening took my seat as a Pellow of the Royal 
Society, being introduced by Mr. Murdock ^ and 
received by Mr. P. Bankes. A Mr. Cramp ton was 
admitted Pellow with me, and I balloted for the 
Chevalier Italinsky, Minister of Russia at the 
Porte. I heard two papers read, one by Sir 
Humphry Davy on lode, another by Dr. Kidd of 
Oxford on the Pormation of Saltpetre. 

I heard that at Lady Cholmondeley's ball the 
Countess of Jersey was walking with the Emperor 
Alexander, when she happened to be so near 
the Prince of Wales that she dropped him a 
curtsey. The Priuce turned on his heel; the 
' William Murdock (1754-1839), inventor of gas lighting. 



150 LONDON Chap. V. 

1814. Emperor whispered to Lady Jersey — "Fas fort 
galant ga." Lady Jersey told this to me. 

I wrote a letter to Tavistock asking for his vote 
and interest. 

June 17. — Walked to Freemasons' Hall, and 
there heard debating on the article in the late 
treaty of peace relative to the continuance of 
the slave-trade for five years by the French in the 
ceded colonies. The Duke of Grloucester was in the 
chair. The business was opened by Wilberforce, 
seconded in an eloquent speech by Lord Grey ; 
then came Whitbread, rough but very good. 
Humboldt, the plenipotentiary, was there and 
next to me. He was much struck with Grey's 
speaking, which, he said, he could understand. 
There was an attack made by Waithman on Lord 
Grey after we went away. 

Went to the play at Covent Garden, into Byron's 
box, in which were Lady Rancliffe, Lord Ean- 
cliffe, and Lady Adelaide Forbes, The Emperor 
was expected, and I saw Fawcett in a full-dress 
ready to receive him. Several well-dressed people 
were in the antechamber of the box, amongst 
others Mrs. Siddons. We did not stay to see 
him. 

I went to Lord Grey's, where was a large party 
half in ftiU-dress, to receive the Emperor Alex- 
ander. Lord Grey desired Lord Lansdowne to 
introduce me to him. I saw and spoke to many 
old foreign friends : Prince Eadzivil, Duchess 
d'Acheranza, and Princess HohenzoUern. Even 



Chap. V. PBINCESS CHARLOTTE 151 

the stiff Eazumanski was most kind, yet the 1814. 
Jerseys and the Westmorelands were shy-like. 
Why this ? 

June 21. — Called on !F. Kinnaird, and finally 
dined with him and Mackenzie, Lord Seaforth's 
son, at the St. Albans'. Mackenzie is a clever 
fellow. He mentioned that his father one evening 
during the life of their elder brother was walking 
with his mother in sight of the family mansion, 
and said, " I am sorry to see that light over 
our house, for by it I know it is mine." His 
brother was dead. This was true second-sight. 
Mackenzie's mother mentioned it to him. 

Yesterday I called on Miss Mercer, who told 
me how the match between the Princess Charlotte 
and the Prince of Orange had been broken off. , 
The Princess Charlotte saw that her father was 
determined to give her no establishment in 
England, and that the letter from the sovereign 
Prince of the Netherlands, in which consent was 
given to his living in England, was kept back for 
a fortnight after its arrival, and she consequently 
made up her mind to be off the bargain. The 
Prince of Orange called on her as usual at Warwick 
House on Thursday last. Before he left the room 
she said to this effect : " I think it best to tell 
you by word of mouth what I should otherwise 
communicate by letter. I have thought that there 
are so many impediments to our union that we 
had better break it off, and from this moment 
I consider it as laid aside." The Prince said, 



152 LONDON Chap. V. 

1814. " Your EiOyal Highness had better consider of this 
and let me know by writing this evening." To 
this the Princess consented. The Prince whilst 
dancing at Lady Hertford's ball received the letter 
which confLrmed the dismissal and requested him 
to communicate it to the Prince Regent. His 
Highness put the letter in his pocket, danced 
on all night, got up at two, did not write, passed 
the day and evening at Lady Castlereagh's, did 
not tell the Prince Regent a word, and on 
Saturday noon writes just six ill-spelt vulgar 
lines to the Princess Charlotte, saying at the end, 
" I hope you shall have no reason to repent the 
step you have taken." The Princess was highly 
offended, and said to Miss Mercer, " I do believe 
he takes me for my housemaid." This is the 
story ; the fact is, she despised him. 

June 22. — Received from the Duke of Devon- 
shire, in consequence of a note, a cold promise 
of support. 

The Emperor of Russia and King of Prussia 
left London to-day, to the great delight of all who 
did not wish to be jambed to pieces in the street, 
and to have all society disjointed. 

The Emperor had prepared to visit the Princess, 
but the Prince Regent sent a letter to him, which 
the Emperor said he would not read until he 
returned. Count Lieven, however, came from 
the Prince and begged the Emperor to open the 
letter. Alexander complied, and found it con- 
tained a request not to visit the Princess, as 



Chap. V. THE KOTAL VISITORS 153 

such, a visit would lower the Prince in the eyes is 14. 
of the people. The Emperor did not go, but 
sent to the Princess a notice that he was pre- 
vented only by the Prince's positive request. 

June 25. — Employed in the morning on the 
Cambridge business. Went in the evening with 
Baron Humboldt, the Prussian minister, to see 
Kean in lago. We sat in the orchestra. He 
was much pleased, but I do not believe under- 
stood much. 

Elected a member of Wattier's Club. 

J^me 26. — Dined with young Lambton, who 
married Miss Cholmondeley. Lord and Lady 
Oholmondeley were there. Lady 0. 0., Lord 
Sackville, the Duke of Devonshire, Kneutson the 
Norwegian, and Mr. Montgomery. Lord C. is 
good-humoured but silly, and yet funny enough. 
He told us that the Emperor and King had given 
nothing yet to the state coachmen and cooks ; that 
the King of Prussia used to eat voraciously at 
half -past two ; that eleven loins of veal were cut 
up for a luncheon for his hundred and eighty 
attendants one day ; that the G-rand Duchess and 
Emperor for three months' stay at the Pulteney 
gave only £200 amongst thirty servants. 

Jtme 27. — Broke every good resolution made 
last birthday, but I here renew them all. I have 
gained in character but lost in capacity, I fear. 
I cannot bring myself to any serious study, and 
I begin to lose my taste for reading even those 
books which used before to interest me. I have 

voii. I 20 



154 LONDON Chap. V. 

1814. tried a town life, and, I think, with complete want 
of success. I am not made for general society ; 
and yet I do not like small coteries, let them be 
composed of ever so clever people ; except where 
my voice is loudest, I cannot bear argumentative 
talk. 

At present I am engaged in a scheme for per- 
suading the University of Cambridge that I am 
the likely man to represent it, and I foresee that 
as I have started on the conjecture that Lord 
Palmerston is to be m^ide a peer, which they say 
will not take place, I begin wrong, and may end 
in making myself ridiculous. 

I believe that if I am bad, everybody is as 
bad. Por to-day I sit and hear Raymond give 
an account through what channels he applied 
himself to the several voters in Palmerston's last 
election. 

June 28. — Rode to London and gallanted Lady 
Hobhouse and my four elder sisters to the great 
concert at Whitehall Chapel. The Queen was 
there, Bliicher, and others. The Prince Prederick 
of Prussia and Madame Meerif eldt were in a box 
opposite to Lord Liverpool. Before us was the 
Duke of Devonshire, behind us a Miss Ployd, 
a most beautiful girl. (Afterwards Lady Peel.)^ 

We dined at Cuthbert's, and met there Count 
Kalkreuth, whom I had known in Stralsund, envoy 
from Prussia to the Crown Prince. He was funny 

' Julia, daughter of General Sir John Floyd : married, in 1820, 
Eobert Peel, afterwards second Baronet and Prime Minister. 



Chap. V. FREDERICK THE GREAT 155 

and very entertaining. He told me that Prince is 14 
Dolgoruki, whom I knew at Berlin, after the 
battle of Austerlitz, came to the King of Prussia 
and, flinging himself at his feet, said in a theatrical 
tone and gesture : 

" Ah, sire, sauvez le monde, sauvez les Mn- 
pereurs ; sauvez VAutricJie ; sauvez notre pays." 
The King, quietly lifting him up, said, " Avant 
tout, mon ami, levez vous, ensuite nous en par- 
leronsJ' Kalkreuth mentioned that his relation, 
the Marshal, told him that many of the French 
soldiers who ran away from the battle of Rosbach 
were taken with bird-cages on their backs. He 
told from the same authority that Prederick the 
Great, one day when the French aeronauts were 
making a stir, said : " Messieurs, les Frangais 
veulent I'air, les Anglais occupent la mer, mon 
confrere Joseph II. se contente avec la terre, 
pour moi, il ne me reste que le feu." This he 
said stirring the stove and alluding to the fire of 
his grenadiers. The same King, shortly before 
his death, said to a small party assembled in his 
cabinet, " I foresee we shall have great disturb- 
ances in Europe. I leave the world in a very 
critical period ; the French will do much towards 
the overthrow of the Continent, mais — bon soir, 
Seidlitz," turning to the Marshal, and giving his 
companion the conge at the most important part 
of the prophecy. 

Kalkreuth told also that when in 1812 the 
French were advancing upon Russia it was found 



156 LONDON Chap. V. 

1814. out a large column under Ney would pass through 
Potsdam. This town, hy an express article of the 
last peace, was exempted from the presence of 
Erench troops, and Kalkreuth was despatched by 
the ministry from Berlin to Marshal Ney near 
Leipsig, to inform him of the circumstance, and 
that his troops would be resisted if they attempted 
to pass through the royal residence. On his way, 
he called on the King at Potsdam, and told him he 
desired to have the latter part of the communica- 
tion from his own mouth. Frederick William 
said, " Certainly, I shall resist ; and tell the 
Marshal that if he comes before Potsdam I will 
pull up the drawbridges and fire upon his troops." 
Kalkreuth met Ney, and without any difficulty 
persuaded him to alter his line of march. The 
Marshal conceded at once, and with many apolo- 
gies when seeing the article of the treaty. 

July 1. — Sir Prancis Burdett brought Ourran to 
my rooms to introduce him to me. He talked 
rhetorically and pointedly, but not without effort, 
I think. Burdett seeing John Puller in my room, 
who was introduced by me, asked him to dine 
with him. This he, I, Davies, Webb, Knight, and 
Hawker did, and met Curran, who was fluent as 
before. 

At nine I put on my Albanian clothes and 
went with Byron to the great masquerade given 
by Wattier's Club in honour of Lord Wellington 
at Burlington House. I presume the supper in 
the temporary room, in which 1,700 persons sat 



Chap. V. CAMBBIDGB 157 

at ease, was the most magnificent thing of the isu. 
kind ever seen. The dress was much admired. 
Byron as a monk looked very well. Miss Rawdon 
said to me, " Does he not look beautiful ? " The 
Duke of Wellington was there in great good 
humour apparently, and not squeezed to death. 
Lady C. Lamb played off the most extraordinary 
tricks — made Skefl&ngton pull off his red guard's 
coat — walked up into the private rooms. A mask 
annoyed me much by saying : " Is that your 
electioneering dress ? " — 'twas one of the Miss 
Kinnaird's. I walked home between six and 
seven. 

July 6. Cambridge. — Lord Byron came from 
Sixmile Bottom, and dined with Davies, who had 
Smythe the professor there. The said Smythe is, 
I think, a poor creature. 

July 7. — At two, started with Byron, Scrope 
Davies, and Kinnaird, in big coach for London. 
Arrived in London by nine. Dined with the 
three at the Cocoa-Tree. Learn that Kinnaird 
told Byron I must have lost my senses to think 
of standing for Cambridge; so there is no faith 
to be placed in man, Kinnaird being one of my 
chief advisers ; but I shall not reproach him but 
use him, and in spite of all I will come in for the 
University. 

July 14. — I dined with Kinnaird, and met 
there General Lowe, and Count Niemen, Secretary 
of Embassy from Austria. General Lowe men- 
tioned that it was impossible to doubt that the 



158 LONDON Chap. V. 

1814. allies would get to Paris ; nothing but political 
considerations could prevent tliem. He owned 
the order for a retreat to the Rhine was given, 
but that Bliicher never ceased to advance when 
he could. He said that the grand army and 
Bliicher's met by accident at F^re Champenoise, 
that Lowe recognised Marshal Wrede, who, learn- 
ing that the Erench columns had been twice 
charged in vain, drew his sword and, flourishing 
it about, led on his cavalry in person, but was 
also obliged to retreat. The Erench were in two 
rectangular bodies. The one of 1,200 men was 
half annihilated before it laid down its arms, 
which when it did, the Emperor Alexander rode 
up to the Commander of it and took him by the 
hand saying he had defended himself, en galant 
Jiomme. The remainder of the 5,000 left, all but 
1,500 dead or wounded on the field. 

Count Niemen mentioned that he had been 
sent to propose an armistice to the allies before 
the battle of Bautzen, but missing his way, or 
being obliged to go about, did not arrive until 
the battle had begun. 

July 16. — Gro to the play with Byron and see 
Kean as Bichard. He carries me away with him. 
It was the last night of the company's perform- 
ance. I supped or dined with Byron at the 
Cocoa-Tree, on fish and champagne. 

Book. — I was not sorry to abandon my Cam- 
bridge project, as, although I received encourage- 
ment from several influential voters, I discovered 



Chap. V. CAMBKIDGE AND POLITICS 159 

that I had very little chance of success. Mr. isu. 
C. Grant was announced as my opponent; he 
was more likely to succeed, and more deserving 
of success than myself. I write this after the 
experience of half a century, during much of 
which I have been honoured with his friendship. 

DiART. July 20. — Dined at Whitton, but in 
the evening rode up to London, and went to a 
concert and ball at Devonshire House. It was 
very magnificent, effacing everything of the kind. 
The gardens were illuminated with "a Wellington." 
At supper there was room for more than came. 

July 21. — I rode down to Holland House and 
saw Lady Holland in her own chamber very ill. 
She told me that Lord Lansdowne had said he 
wished I were in Parliament, and also that Lord 
T. Townshend had desired Lord Holland to speak 
to Lord Grey, which he did, about his son, but 
only to fulfil the letter of his promise. 

Went in the evening to Lady Jersey's, where 
was a small party attended by those who were 
not invited to the Prince's fete — about twenty : 
Lord and Lady Holland, Duchess of Somerset, 
Mrs. and Miss Rawdon, Lady Eancliffe, Mr. and 
Mrs. Tierney, Mr. D. Rouse, and lastly Brummell, 
who was received with a smile for a repetition 
of fades plaisanteries on the occasion of their 
exclusion. 

July 22. — I wrote numerous letters on the subject 
of the election of Cambridge University — had a 
counsel with Raymond thereupon. 



160 LONDON Chap. V. 

1814. July 29. — Wrote for Byron a note to his 
"Lara," stating that there are, and were, no serfs 
in Spain, and that he knew it. This was suggested 
hy Lady Holland to me. 

August 1. — Went to London to see the Grand 
Jubilee. I saw by the placards that the public 
was respectfully informed that the Parks were 
shut up. 

I dined at Cuthbert's, and went with him. Miss 
Doyle, Lady L., and Lord !P. Bentinck, to the 
Hyde Park, where the ships fought, on the 
Serpentine, coming on stern foremost and firing 
one pop-gun at a time. 

Afterwards I went to Burdett's house, and sat 
in a room there with a large party until past one 
to see the fireworks from the Castle in the Green 
Park, which were very brilliant but very tire- 
some. The whole room was asleep. I rode off to 
Whitton, tired to death. The pagoda in St. 
James's Park was burnt down accidentally, and 
two men killed. 

August 11.— Bode to London. Saw Byron and 
his sister. Murray tells me that he has sold 
6,000 of " Lara." Byron has got back New- 
stead. The buyer, Glaughton, has forfeited 
£25,000. 

At home : Baron Arnhem dined with us. He 
said he had spoken several times to Napoleon, 
whose most striking feature, he said, was a disgust 
and contempt of the human race. He told an 
anecdote that. Napoleon, seeing the King of 



Chap. V. LEI&h's EGTPMAN TOUR 161 

Rome playing on the floor one day, said to some 1814. 
Cardinal, " Qroyez-vous, Cardinal, que cet Stre-la 
ait un dme ? " (The Baron is a bore.) 

August 13. — Leigh, Maddox, and Gough dined 
with us. 

Leigh talked of his Egyptian tour ; he affirmed 
that the plague there seemed sometimes to drop 
from heayen upon a village or district and swept 
everything away : men, horses, cattle, sheep, dogs, 
at once, but did not extend beyond the certain line. 
It has never gone beyond a certain spot in Upper 
Egypt, which is marked by the tomb of a cele- 
brated Sheik, who is said to prevent its higher 
progress, and is therefore much worshipped. The 
plague is much worse in autumn. The inhabitants 
of Egypt, when the plague appeared at Alexandria 
at first said it was only the Constantinopolitan 
plague, and that it could not live in their heat; 
but it did, and killed 150 herdsmen. Leigh was 
at Malta during the plague there, which he said 
either was not the plague or was caused by the 
fright of government. 

Leigh told me that the Mameluke Beys were 
driven fifty days' journey from Alexandria to the 
Black Kingdom of Gondola, which they had 
seized. They consist of 500 Mamelukes, 4,000 
blacks and other slaves, badly armed with bows 
and arrows. They were going to war with a 
powerful king who lives by the Red Sea when 
Leigh was there. When he was at Alexandria, 
news arrived of the taking of Moscow, at the 

VOL. I 21 



162 LONDON CHAP. V. 

1814. same time came news of the taking of Mecca by 
Ali Pasha, and. the Turks rejoiced for many 
days. The invasion of Russia was to them a 
business of infinite unimportance : they only 
thought of Mecca. Events are nothing but vast 
horrors. 

August 15. — Rode up to London. Called on 
Byron and Bickersteth. 

August 18. — Dined with Byron at Cocoa-Tree ; 
walked home in two hours and a half. (Whitton.) 

September 1. — Dined with Kinnaird. Luttrell 
(the wit) there ; he is good-humoured, but made 
no trial, though he said pleasant things enough. 
Bickersteth beat down all before him. He 
recommended him to read Lord. Bacon de 
augmentis. 

Kinnaird told us that a Dr. Asalini, who was 
with Napoleon in Egypt, said the famous 
massacre of Jaffa was not true in its full extent, 
but that 3,000 Turks who had been before let go, 
being taken again in Jaffa, were disarmed and 
kept like beasts and driven to drink sometimes. 
Napoleon, not knowing what to do with them, 
said, " Qu'on me chasse ces hommes a coups de 
fusil," and that accordingly columns of Erench 
were drawn up, and the Turks being directed to 
fly one way, a few discharges took place, and about 
seventy were killed or wounded. 

The staff, with Napoleon, were looking at this 
through a spy-glass, and it was owned Napoleon 
smiled. As to the poisoning, only fourteen men 



Chap. V. BTRON's ENGAGEMENT 163 

had anything given them, as Napoleon said to the 1814. 
physician " Four adoucir leurs maux," and of 
these four recovered. Asalini was told this by 
the very physician who refused to poison the 
men. 

September 3. — At Whitton. Eolks dined here 
on venison. A person here, a young major, with 
whom it turned out one of the family either had 
been, or is, in love. He is aide-de-camp to 
General Paget, who was taken prisoner in the 
retreat from Salamanca. He told me that Paget 
told him the French who took him came for Lord 
Wellington, who arrived at the spot only five 
minutes after them. 

September 5. — Read Ben Jonson's Alchemist 
for the first time, to my shame ; it is a most 
superior comedy indeed, and shows an extra- 
ordinary power of words, and appropriate ones. 

September 19. — At Easton Gray shooting. . . . 

September 30. — Lord Byron is going to be 
married, as I learn, to Miss Milbanke. 

October 1. — I wrote congratulations to Byron. 

October 13. — Left Randcombe, stopped at Ciren- 
cester, and visited part of a Boman pavement in 
the house of a Mr. Jelf. The specimen is in 
mosaic, and is admirably performed, both as to 
colour and outline, infinitely superior to the plate 
that has been taken of it. 

I have heard from Baillie, who has visited 
Napoleon at Elba, and mentioned his voice as 
peculiarly sweet, but his convensatiou not singular^ 



164 LONDON Chap. V. 

1814. He had an hour's talk on the terrace over the 
beach of Porto Eerrajo by moonlight in company 
with Mrs. Orby Hunter, Lord Dumfries, and 
Mr. Vaughan, who wrote an account of Sicily. 
Napoleon talked of the nature of the Militia 
service, of the English Army and Navy, of their 
uniform, and addressed Mrs. O. Hunter upon 
the comparative merits of English and Italian 
silks. 

Baillie says he met Cole and Campbell at 
Florence, who accompanied Napoleon to Elba, 
and learnt many singular anecdotes from them. 
It is astonishing, says Baillie, how little dignity 
or discretion he makes use of in his retreat. He 
told Usher, in his cabin going to Elba, that he 
should be recalled to the throne of Erance in six 
months. 

He has gone over with Campbell the history 
of his whole private life. Campbell says he 
neither reads nor writes, 'but employs the time, 
from four in the morning until ten at night, 
except at meals, in constant bodily activity. 

October \4i. — Last night and this morning I 
read a little book called, " England's Black 
Tribunal," printed and published first in 1659 ; 
the trial and proceedings against Charles I. 

October 15. — Read at night some autographs of 
Mrs. Smith's, which are very valuable. There is 
one of Oliver Cromwell, with his seal and signature, 
directed to " all ofl&cers under my command." 
Also a letter from Dryden, deciding ^ passage 



Chap. V. LETTER FROM BROUGHAM 165 

from Creech's Lucretius, which Mrs. Smith sent isu. 
to Scott when he published his edition of Dryden, 
and which is the only original letter in that 
edition. That which struck me very much was 
a French letter from Henry Brougham to his 
cousin, John Richardson, then at Paris, dated 
Edinburgh, January 1, 1802. It is bold French 
enough, but is curious, because Brougham there 
tells him that he has on the anvil his Colonial 
Policy, which, though it is a subject au-dessus 
de ses forces, he still shall publish in order to 
make himself known, and to give himself a repu- 
tation pour la politique ; if he does not succeed, 
he tells his cousin, he shall leave his country 
and try his fortune at some foreign court, and he 
begs him to inquire what encouragement is given 
to strangers in Prance. He concludes by telling 
Mr. Richardson not to lionise at Paris, but to 
keep company good but cheap, i.e., with the 
emigres and old noblesse. He talks with enthu- 
siasm of the charm of female society, and even 
of domestic life, and concludes by mentioning 
that he is studying nineteen hours out of the 
twenty-four. 

October 19. — Pound a letter from Byron asking 
me to stand groomsman at his marriage. 

October 23. — Read in the evening some of Mr. 
Smith's autographs — one of Johnson recommend- 
ing a Benedictine monk to Dr. Adams of Pembroke, 
and a capital letter from Locke to Sir T. Bankes, 
relative to his son's travelling, and advising that 



166 BOWOOD Chap. V. 

1814. instead of staying at Paris, where they then were, 
he should visit the departments. Locke lays 
down as the chief good to he gained hy travel, the 
acquisition of ease with strangers, and a modest 
assurance in every company. 

October 30. — Set off in a post-chaise to Bowood. 
Dined there ; found Lord and Lady Lansdowne, 
Jekyll, Horner, Lord and Lady Andover, and 
a Mr. Newnham. At once I saw the difference 
of talk in this company from that which I had 
left : quiet, classical, and critical on points of 
Latin, perhaps no great learning was shown, hut 
the turn of talk was scholarlike. Jekyll told us 
that Pox, coming one day on Jolliffe, M.P., a 
strange man, found him eagerly reading Hume. 
Pox looked over him, and said, "Ah, I see you 
are got to the imprisonment of the seven bishops." 
" Por God's sake," cried Jolliffe, " don't tell me 
what's coming." " Now," said Jekyll, " an elderly 
gentleman of fifty, with a wife of fifty-five as wise 
as himself, are the best records of history. To 
them it is a romance." 

We had a discourse on the propriety of the 
use of " tetigit " in Goldsmith's epitaph. It 
seems it has been objected to. The next day 
in the Thesaurus we found one use of it in 
Cicero . . . sed Aristoteles, sed . . . ista tetigit. Mr. 
Newnham remarked one day that Virgil has very 
few metaphorical expressions in his poems. He 
has some, but a few, certainly, i.e. compared with 
Lucretius., Bowles, the ^oet, was there. Hq 



Chap. V. BTRON AND CAWTHOBN 167 

talked of respect for Mr. Horner and myself, i8i4. 
which made us pass the bottle. Jekyll com- 
plimented my book to me. After dinner we 
dawdled the time agreeably till bedtime. 

October 31. — Looked over Latin Thesaurus ; 
afterwards I learnt the folly of hazarding strong 
assertions. Lord Lansdowne appealed often to 
m.e, unfortunately. I can't help being overrated, 
but I can help appearing to know more than 
I do, and I will. . . . 

Lord and Lady Boringdon came late at night. 
My lady is suspected of having written the two 
novels : " Pride and Prejudice " and " Sense and 
Sensibility." (By Miss Austen.) She is clever 
and plays with a grace at billiards. (Afterwards 
Lady Morley.) 

November 1. — I rode to Broughton, calling on 
Mrs. Dickinson by the way. Lord and Lady 
Andover gone. 

November 20. — Whitton. Rode up to London ; 
saw Douglas' Kinnaird, etc. Pind Cawthorn has 
turned out a rogue and threatened Byron to 
republish his " Satire," and publish his hints from 
Horace. He tried to provoke Byron to strike 
him. I called on Byron and find he comes to 
the Albany to-day. Called on Westmacott, and 
found him talking of the Roman pavement at 
Bognor. He has heard from Lyons, and seen a 
copy of the pavement found there, which repre- 
sents a chariot race entire. 

November 23. — Went with Kinnaird to Gam- 



168 CAMBRIDGE AND LONDON Chap. V. 

1814, bridge. Saw Lord Byron. Voted in the Senate 
House for Mr. Clarke, Pellow of Trinity, for the 
Professorship of Anatomy. Lord Byron, when he 
gave his vote, was applauded by the students in the 
gallery, and also when he left the place of voting. 
This is, they tell me, unique. He looked as red 
as fire. Mansel and Dr. Clarke contended for the 
honour of escorting him. This is well for a bishop. 

I dined in our hall. Afterwards saw Bloom- 
field, who is a prig. There were there, young 
Perceval, eldest son of the Minister who this 
night declaimed in Trinity against Whitbread's 
eldest son on the death of Charles I. ; also 
Scrope Davies, Hodgson, Lord Byron, and a Mr. 
Matthews, brother of my friend. 

November 24. — Went with Byron and Chambers 
to London. Dined with Kinnaird, met there 
Sir Robert Wilson, Sir C. Stuart, K.B., the 
Minister at Lisbon ; Byron, and also two Poles, 
one of whom. General Count Pac,^ talked of his 
services with Napoleon, with whom he had been 
on the Mat-major up to the time of the abdication. 

He told us that when Napoleon entered Wilna 
in the campaign of 1812, there had been prepara- 
tions in the town for feting the Emperor 
Alexander, who, with his army, had the same 

' General Pac served in the Polish army till 1808, when he took 
service with the French and joined their army in the Peninsula. 
He afterwards distinguished himself in the battles of Essling, 
Wagram, Lutzen, Dresden, and Leipzig. On the fall of Napoleon 
he retired to his estates in Poland, and took part in the struggle 
for liberty in 1830, in which year he was wounded at the battle of 
Ostrolenko. 



Chap. V. GENERAL PAC's STORIES 169 

day fled from it. Count Pac had prepared a 1814. 
ball and fireworks. The letter A. in the centre 
of these was changed into an N., so that the fire- 
works at his mansion as well as the fetes of the 
whole city served to celebrate the entry of the 
French Emperor. 

Pac was at Dresden : he completely confirmed 
the stories I heard at that place of the same 
number of the French the day of the first 
appearance of the allies, who, he said, might 
have carried the place by a charge of the 
bayonet. Only 15,000, or 20,000 French were 
in garrison. Napoleon arrived in the night 
and went to bed. Pac was on the lookout from 
the top of the house : he saw the allies forming 
on the heights, but waited to be sure that he had 
not been mistaken. He then went down and spoke 
to Nansouty,^ who was in waiting. He was shown 
in to Napoleon and told the news. The Emperor 
heard him and cried, "Allans, mon cheval." Not- 
withstanding the Saxons hated him and the French, 
yet such was their fear for their lives and safety, 
and such their confidence even in the appearance 
of Napoleon, that although they knew how few 
French were in Dresden, they shouted with joy, 
the women even crying as he rode along the streets. 
The day of the battle Napoleon was standing 
in a battery with Pac, who was on the lookout 

' Etienne Antoine Marie Champion, Comte de Nansouty, 1768- 
1815, distinguished as a soldier, and also for his bravery, generosity, 
and independence of character. He joined the Royalists after the abdi- 
cation of Napoleon, and died of an incurable disease in February 1815. 

VOL. I 22 



170 LONDON Chap. V. 

1814. and saw a train of fieldpieces brought down to 
flank this battery. This he communicated to 
Napoleon, who said briskly ; " Je ne vous demande 
pas ga" and stood still. Instantly a discharge 
of shot carried away part of the palisades and 
drove the earth all over the Emperor's pantaloons, 
who then galloped away. 

At the battle of Leipsig he put himself before 
his cavalry, and rode on his white horse with all his 
staff along the line. This wonderfully inspirited 
the men. At Montmirail he himself charged at 
the head of five squadrons of cavalry and three of 
infantry, throwing out his arms and calling to his 
troops, galloping before them. The Prussians ran 
from the field, 30,000 before a few regiments, 
without knowing what or who pursued them. 

Napoleon was in the habit, especially in the 
last campaign, of leaving his marshals to fight at 
discretion, and his marshals suffered their generals 
to do the same. At Montmirail Count Pac 
commanded a division ; he saw Marshal Le Pebvre 
wrapped up in his greatcoat standing in the field 
alone, and, galloping to him, asked for orders. 
" Mon cher" said he, " faites ce que vous voudrez." 
Before that battle. Napoleon was so surrounded 
that he was obliged to follow the guidance of 
the peasants who, when the allies, advancing on 
all sides towards Paris, had cut off communications 
by the high road, led him and his little army 
through marshes until he got at the rear of 
Bliicher and the Prussians and beat them. 



Chap. V. CRITICISM OF THE ALLIES 171 

Napoleon was in the habit of boxing the ears 1814. 
of his marshals and great men, half in jest and 
half in earnest. Count Pac has seen him slap 
Oaulaincourt on the face in such a manner as to 
make it doubtful what he meant. The other Pole 
told me one or two ludicrous stories of Napoleon's 
way of making love. 

Both the Poles agreed that Napoleon mistrusted 
the Poles. These people offered to raise the armed 
population for his service, but Duroc informed 
them that the Emperor would accept of such as 
those to enter into the regular regiments, but 
would dispense with the levies. He dismissed the 
diet at Wilna. " Prom that moment the heart of 
the Poles sank," said Pac. 

They declaimed against the present conduct of 
the allies, and especially the folly of England 
being taken by the bait of making Hanover a 
kingdom, and of giving Belgium to the Prince of 
Orange, when in any war Belgium and Hanover 
must fall at once. England, said they, should 
keep as many small estates in Italy or in the 
German seaports as possible, so that if she goes 
to war with any great continental power she may 
not be at once shut out from all continental 
commerce ; but now she consents to give Dantzig 
to Prussia, and Italy to Austria. Italy, said they, 
had begun to raise her head under Napoleon ; she 
had her own Senate, her own armies, her own 
laws, unmixed. Her literature began to revive. 
Will she consent to be the cudgel of Austria ? 



172 LONDON Chap. V. 

1814. Germany was in bondage, but she was Germany- 
still, and after the death of Napoleon would have 
recovered herself. Now she is no longer Germany ; 
the smaller States are to be merged, the larger 
confined, changed, and retitled ; whole peoples are 
transferred to new masters, and who is content ? 
Ask Saxony. Ask Bavaria. And let England 
hear the same question. She will have to pay 
Prussia for the preservation of Hanover, and 
Austria for allowing her to trade to Italy and 
the Ionian Isles. 

Pac said he augured ill of the Russian dis- 
position towards Poland at once. When he, after 
the review of the Poles at St. Cloud, received an 
order from the Grand Duke Constantine relative 
to his division, he returned no answer, but wrote 
to Talleyrand telling him that he considered him- 
self and his Poles under orders from the Provi- 
sional Government of Prance. Talleyrand, I think 
he said, replied that under existing circumstances 
it would be advisable for him to attend to the 
orders of the Grand Duke. 

The Poles showed the most devoted attachment 
in their way of talking of their country. They 
told us only eight regiments are to be raised in 
Poland. Now they have nearly as many officers 
as would supply 100,000 men, so that the Polish 
gentry must look to something else than the 
profession of arms. Pac said, "J'ai sauve mon 
honneur et je n'ai pas perdu mon bien, voilk 
quelque chose, j'ai et6 general, je serai a very 



Chap. V. KBAN's ANECDOTES 173 

good farmer," and. in fact he has heen six months isu. 
in Scotland and England making observations on 
agriculture. I heard somewhere that the French 
prisoners who came from Scotland were followed 
in their march hack to Erance with a train of 
Scotch ploughs and other implements of husbandry. 
November 26. — Went to Drury Lane and saw 
Kean in Macbeth. His dagger and murder 
scene is very great ; but Mrs. Bartlett's (Miss 
Smith) Lady Macbetli was intolerable. 

December 2. — Dined at Kinnaird's. Present : 
Lord Byron and Kean. Kean told us one or two 
anecdotes of himself. One was that at Stroud, 
in Grloucestershire, on one night he acted 
Shylock, danced on the tight-rope, sang a song 
then in vogue called the " Storm," sparred with 
Mendoza, and then acted Three-fingered Jack. 
. . . He said that one night he forgot his part, 
and repeated the " Allegro " of Milton without 
being detected by the audience. He gave us 
imitations of Incledon, of Kemble, of Sinclair, 
and Master Betty, all in the most finished style. 
He said he always felt his part when acting with 
a pretty woman, and then only. 

We broke up at two o'clock, mutually much 
pleased. 

December 6. — Came to Woburn, the most com- 
fortable, princely mansion in the world. Met 
there the Hon. Colonel Ered Ponsonby, 12th 
Dragoons, Lord W. Russell and his son George, 
Colonel and Mrs. Seymour, the latter aunt to 



174 WOBTJIIN Chap. V. 

1814. Lord Tavistock — a charming woman. Dined in a 
magnificent room, on plate, with three or four 
servants out of livery, among whom, however, is 
the marker of the Duke's tennis court. 

December 7. — Went shooting in great style, 
keepers in liveries, cart to hold the game, etc., 
but it rained, and we killed no great number. 
It was a regular battue. Tavistock had a New- 
foundland dog and a stray which fetched wounded 
game. 

Mr. and Lady E. Whitbread arrived to-day. 
Mr. Whitbread was very jocose on a story of 
mine, relative to Napoleon's reported carrying of 
horse-shoes for four years for his cavalry into 
Russia, which I heard at Paris, but which calcula- 
tion shows to be next to impossible. The lowest 
calculation would make 12,000-ton weight of 
horse-shoes. 

December 10. — Rode my mare with the hounds. 
No sport, dreadful day of snow and hail. Caven- 
dish, his wife, and Lady Walpole arrive. 

December W. — Played at tennis in the Duke's 
court with Tavistock. Visited the pheasantry and 
other beauties of this place, the Temple of Liberty 
at the end of the conservatory. The Latin on the 
fagade is not bad. The lines under Pox's bust by 
the Duchess of Devonshire are excellent, I think. 
Tavistock told me that his father pays £14,000 
a year in annuities for the late Duke. The sums 

he gave to the Duchess of D and Lady B 

were immense. He owed £300,000 at his death. 



Chap. V. NAPOLEON AX ELBA 175 

I read in Ayliffe's " Eormer and Present State 1814, 
of Oxford " that Antony Wood is reckoned a 
papist. 

December 12. — Rode sixteen miles on my mare to 
meet the hounds at a Mr. Wescar's in Bucking- 
hamshire, a country as fine as Leicestershire. 
Did not find there, nor until we got to Sir 

Jonathan hop grounds, where we had a bad 

run. My horse gave me two severe falls. 

Dinner as usual. Lady Walpole told me of 
some gentleman who called up everybody at an 
inn from fear of a moth. The waiter said, " No 
wonder he was frightened, for it was a very large 
moth." 

Book. — On Tuesday, December 13 of this year 
(1814), I heard from a friend that he had received 
a letter from Colonel Campbell, at Elba. In that 
letter Campbell told my friend that Napoleon had 
spent all his money, and suspected that his pension 
would not be paid. " Sometimes," wrote the 
Colonel, "he talks wildly of his former life, and 
complains of the cruelty of separating him from 
his wife and child. At other times he speculates 
on his future fate, and says that if the allies wish 
to dispose of him, he is ready to embark for 
St. Helena, or voila la poitrine." Mr. Whit- 
bread (the late), to whom I showed my friend's 
letter, at Woburn, told me that Captain Usher, 
who carried over Napoleon, in the Undaunted, 
to Elba, gave him an interesting account of the 
Emperor's way of life while on board his frigate. 



176 WOBUEN Chap. V. 

1814. He was exceedingly cheerful the whole time of 
the passage. He rose at four in the morning, took 
a cup of coffee, wrote until ten, breakfasted a 
la fourchette, and passed a great part of the day 
in walking the quarter-deck. On one occasion he 
went forward and spoke to the sailors about the 
best way of veering away a cable. Captain Usher 
said that his hints were those of a good seaman. 
He gave Usher a picture of himself, and invited 
him and his wife to Elba, offering a palace for 
their residence. He showed the Captain a picture 
of Marie Louisa, very jaretty. Napoleon called 
it " flattering " ; " she is, however," added he, 
" very amiable." He also showed the Captain 
a bust of himself, which Usher said was like him, 
but Napoleon replied, " No ; it makes me frown, 
which I defy anybody to say he ever saw me do." 
Captain Usher said his smile was most captivating. 
Napoleon gave the crew of the Undaunted £400 
when he left the ship. The boatswain, in their 
name, thanked him on the quarter-deck, and 
" wished his Honour long life and prosperity at 
the isle of Elba." He had sixteen covered wag- 
gons with him when he disembarked, and he 
stood in his little cocked hat eight hours, under 
a burning sun, which drove Captain Usher in, 
that he might see everything taken out of the ship. 
He then mounted his horse, and galloped about 
several (four) hours pour se delasser. Whilst 
the Captain was on the island Napoleon used to 
ride with him about on goat-tracks, which made 



Chap. V. JJAPOLEON AT ELBA 177 

the Captain tremble, and Napoleon said, " You I8i4. 
don't care for me at sea, but I can frighten you 
here." 

Diary. December 13. — He assembled the gran- 
dees and others at his palace the next morning 
when Usher was present. Napoleon entered the 
chamber and stood thoughtful for two minutes, 
with his finger in his nose, then turned about 
and dictated to a secretary, without any hesitation, 
an entire plan of a most magnificent palace from 
the cellars to the garrets. 

Usher gave him his wine, for there was none 
at Elba. Napoleon offered to pay him, but Usher 
said his Government would not allow such a 
reimbursement, which it would take certainly 
upon itself. 

When Usher came back he called on Lord 
Melville. He says he might have had anything 
if he would have described Napoleon as a fool 
or mad ; but as he could not and did not, in spite 
of all his Lordship's hints, he has been told he 
must accept £100, which he has refused. He 
kept three tables, for himself. Napoleon, and suite. 

These anecdotes were confirmed to me by Lady 
Madeline Palmer at Bedford, all except one, 
when Whitbread's two hours were reduced to two 



Napoleon at Elba 

Book. — Several accounts have been published 
of the Emperor's life at Elba, and his conversation 
with Englishmen there. My late friend Lord 

VOL. I 23 



178 NAPOLEON AT ELBA Chap. V. 

1814. Fortescue, and others, have left records of this 
episode of his career, but I know nothing more 
characteristic than that which was told me at 
Paris, in 1815, by an old school and college 
friend of mine, who, to say the truth, rather 
forced himself upon the Emperor. The occur- 
rence took place on January 13 or 14, 1815, and 
was reported to me on April 22, of the same year. 
I find it thus recorded. My friend, Mr. M.,^ 
put himself in the way of Napoleon as he was 
riding from Porto Perrajo, and pulled off his hat 
as the Emperor passed. Napoleon stopped, and 
said to Bertrand or Drouot, who were riding with 
him, " Qui est celui-la ? " The answer was, " I 
do not know; apparently a stranger." Said 
Napoleon to M., "Qui etes-vous ? " "Je suis 
un Anglais," replied M. " Ah, etes-vous 
militaire ? " M. " Non." N. " Marchand ? " M. 
" Non." N. " Alors vous etes a gentleman; 
pourquoi venez-vous ici ? " M. " Seulement 
pour vous voir." N. " Quand est-ce que vous 
etes arrive ? " N. " Ce matin ; nous avons eu une 
tempete le soir, et manqu&mes d'etre perdus." 
N. " Non, vraiment ? mais d'oii venez-vous ? " 
M. " De Paris." N. " Quand ga ? " M. " Quinze 
jours." N. " Ah, c'est Men vite ; par ou etes- 
vous pass6 ? " iff . " Par Turin." JV. " Avez-vous 
des nouvelles de Paris ? " M. " Pas beaucoup. 
lis out arr^tes une trentaine de personnes et 
doubles les gardes." JV. " Que dites-vous ? " 

' Mr. Macnamara. See p. 269. 



Chap. v.. ANECDOTES OE NAPOLEON 179 

M. repeated what he had said. Napoleon cried I814. 
out, " Apportez-lui un cheval," and one of the 
attendants dismounted and gave his horse to M. 
Napoleon^, turned to Bertrand, and said, " Have 
you heard of this ? " Bertrand answered, " Non, 
sire." "You shall ride with me," said Napoleon 
to M., and they rode side by side for a short 
time, until Bertrand remarked, " This is the road, 
sire." Napoleon replied, "No; I will go to San 
Martino " (his country house), and thither they 
rode. On the road Napoleon said, " "What do you 
think of the state of Prance?" "Empereur," 
replied M., for so he always called him, " we 
had a storm last night ; now there is no wind, 
but the sea is agitated." " Well answered," said 
Napoleon. Arrived at San Martino, Napoleon 
took M. into a small room, and shut the door. 
N. "A present que nous sommes seuls vous 
pouvez me demander tout ce qui vous plaira ; 
je vous donnerai de r6ponse." The conversation 
that followed lasted for more than two hours, 
and a most singular talk it was. My friend was 
not embarrassed by any modesty, false or 
otherwise, and took full advantage of the per- 
naission given him to ask questions. He said, 
" Why did you stay so long at Moscow ? " 
Napoleon replied, " I looked over the meteoro- 
logical tables for thirty years, and never but once 
had the winter set in so early by five weeks as 
it did in 1812. I could not foresee that. I made 
mistakes, as every man does in the many years 



180 NAPOIiEON AT ELBA Chap. V. 

1814. that I have been in public life and. soldier — perhaps 
ten a day." M. " Quoi, dix par jour?" N. 
" Oui, dix par jour. I made a mistake about 
England in trying to conquer it. The English 
are a bi'ave nation. I have always said there are 
only two nations, the English and the Erench ; and 
I made the Erench. What would you have done 
had I landed in England ? " M." Risen against 
you to a man. I myself, with all my admiration 
for you, would have poisoned, you. I would, have 
sent you a dozen bottles of drugged wine, any- 
thing to get rid of you." N. "Well, you are 
right. Then you do not think the English would 
bear being governed by me ? " M. " No." N. " No ! 
why not ? " M. " They admire your abilities, but 
there are two or three things which you have 
done, and which they cannot bear." N. "What 
are they ? " M. " You would not like to hear 
them." N. "Yes, I shall— speak. " M. "Well, 
then, the death of the Duke d'Enghien." N. 
" Bah ! c'est un enfantillage." M. " Comment 
enfantillage, tuer un homme comme 9a ? " N. 
" Yes ; what business had he to plot with Pichegru 
and Georges within five miles of Erance ? Why 
could he not go elsewhere ? He was tried and 
condemned, by a council of war. He was not 
shot in the night, he was shot in the morning. I 
was told I must put him to death." M. "1 am 
glad you have cleared yourself of that." N. 
" Well, what else ? " M. " Poisoned your sick." 
iV. "Ce n'est pas vrai. There were fourteen or 



Chap. V. MR. M.'S INTERVIEW WITH NAPOLEON 181 

sixteen ill of the plague. I assembled a medical isu. 
board — they said the sick would die in twenty- 
four hours. I determined to wait that time rather 
than leave them to the Turks, who would cut 
off their noses and ears. At the end of the 
time only one or two were alive, and they were 
dying when my army marched. No, that charge 
is not true." ^ M. " The massacre of two thousand 
Turks at Jaffa." N. " II y avait trois mille. 
Well, I had a right. They had been my prisoners. 
I released them. I knew they were in Jaffa. 
I sent a captain with a flag of truce to warn 
them to get away before the town was taken, 
as, if they were retaken, I should be obliged 
to shoot them. They killed my messenger, cut 
off his head and put it on a pike. The town was 
taken by assault, and the men were shot. I had 
a right. Mr. Robert Wilson and Sydney Smith, 
who blamed me, would have done the same ; 
besides, there were not provisions enough for 
Prench and Turks — one of them must go to the 
wall. I did not hesitate. Je ne balanpai pas." 
M. " How did you escape from Egypt ? " N. 
" Nothing was more easy ; but if Sydney Smith, 
instead of playing the politician with the Pasha 
of Egypt, had been attending to his profes- 

' Napoleon talked to M. of tlie death of Pichegru, and said, " He 
strangled himself by twisting a stick in his neckcloth in this way " 
[showing how he did it]. " As for Wright, I only knew that he had 
killed himself. I had no inducement or interest of any kind in 
regard to the death of that man." Napoleon speaking of Dessaix, 
told M. that the battle of Marengo was won before Dessaix 
came up. 



182 NAPOLEON AT ELBA Chap. V. 

1814. sional duties, and cruising before Alexandria, I 
could not have got away." M. " Did you not bring 
away three or four Mamelukes with you ? " N. 
" Yes." M. " We had a foolish story in England." 
N. "What is that?" M. "You will be fach6." 
N. " No. What is it ? " M. " Why, they said 
you had fallen asleep, and one of your Mamelukes 
having some of your papers by accident in his 
hand, you took up a pistol and shot him dead." 
N. " No ; this hand is innocent of blood — innocent 
as yours. No ; I never did this ; it is nonsense. 
My Mameluke never slept in the same room with 
me; he had a chamber apart." M. " Is it true 
that your Mameluke offered to cut off your head 
at Pontainebleau last year, and that pistols were 
left in your room for you to shoot yourself ? " 
Napoleon laughed heartily at this story. " Non, 
c'est une betise — what ! kill myself ? Had I 
nothing better to do than this — like a miserable 
bankrupt, who, because he has lost his goods, de- 
termines to lose his life ? No. Napoleon is always 
Napoleon, and always will know how to be content 
and bear any fortune. It must be confessed that 
I am in a better plight now than when I was 
a lieutenant of artillery." M. " Bravo, Em- 
pereur ! " During the conversation Napoleon 
said, " Mon r61e est fini." He added that he was 
writing his history. M. said, " Alors I'histoire 
aura un triumvirat de grands hommes — Alexandre, 
Cesar, et Napoleon." Napoleon looked steadfastly 
at him without speaking, and M. told me he 



Chap. V. MARMONT 183 

thougM he saw the Emperor's eyes moistened, isu. 
At last N. said, " Vous auriez eu raison si une 
balle m'avait frappe a la bataille de Mojaisk ; 
m.ais mes derniers revers ont effac6 touts la 
gloire de mes premieres ann^es." Saying this, he 
walked away to the end of the room, and paused 
for some time in silence. M. next told him that 
Italy was in a turbulent state, and hinted that 
Napoleon might do something there. N. " Pas 
la." "Perhaps," added M., "you think that 
country not large enough for you ; but recollect 
the Romans gave laws to the whole world." Na- 
poleon then said that Louis XVIII. was a "brave 
homme, trop bon pour les Prangais ; et moi aussi, 
j'^tais trop bon." M. " Quoi ! trop bon?" ]Sf. 
" Oui, trop bon, et on m'a tromp6 flnalement." 
Napoleon said he could not think of Marmont 
" sans rougir " — a man whom he had brought up 
from the age of sixteen, and who, only the night 
before he went over to the allies, had, at a secret 
interview close to Paris, sworn fidelity to him. 
He insisted that his last movements upon Paris 
would have succeeded if Marmont had remained 
faithful. The allies might have had one gate 
of Paris, he the other. They would have been 
obliged to leave 300,000 men in the city, and then 
he should have beaten them; the treachery of 
Marmont decided the business. " Not one of the 
Prench marshals was worth that," said Napoleon, 
snapping his fingers. He (N.) could make a 
Prench army bear and do anything. JSf. con- 



184 NAPOLEON AT ELBA Chap. V. 

1814. tinued : " Wellington was a brave homme " ; he 
would sooner trust Mm with 100,000 men than 
any of his own Generals, even Soult ; but it was 
very foolish to send him (W.) to the Court of 
Prance to face those whom he had humbled. 
M. " Why do the Prench Generals talk so slight- 
ingly of him ? " N. " Because he has humbled 
them one after another. How did the English 
like the Bourbons ? " M. " They thought little of 
them ; they did not like the Due de Berri, he was 
too debauched." N. " Debauched ! what do you 
mean — that he loved women ? " M. " No, not 

that ; he , and that is not liked in England." 

N. " On n'aime pas §a non plus en France." 
M. " Did the Empress Maria Louisa like you ? " 
N. " Ah ! pauvre femme, si elle ne m'aimait ! " 
M. " What sort of boy is the King of Rome ? Is 
he a fine child ? " N. " Ma foi ! je I'ai tr^s peu 
vu; i'ai 6t6 a la guerre. Je n'en sais presque 
rien." N. talked with much indifference of the 
child, and of the Austrian alliance. He said, 
" O'^tait un funeste mariage." Napoleon asked 
repeatedly about the Princess Charlotte, and 
whether she was not a person of spirit and 
character. Of the Prince of Orange he said that 
he had intercepted a letter from him to his father, 
in which the Prince had abused the Prince Regent 
of England violently. "This," said N., "was 
wrong, and I had a good mind to publish the 
letter in the Moniteur, but I did not. As to 
Belgium, the Prench will have it, or Louis lose 



Chap. V. INTERVIEW WITH NAPOLEON 185 

his crown in a year — nay, in three : put that I814. 
down in your tablets," said he (tapping M. on 
the shoulder), "and say Napoleon told you so. 
How is the old king ? I know he never liked 
me ; did he abuse me ? " M. " He followed the 
bent of his Ministers. However, he praised you 
for one thing." N. " What was that ? " M. " I 
don't like to tell you." JV. " Speak out." M. 
" Well, then, when you divorced Josephine and 
married the Archduchess, he said he wished he 
could change his wife too." Here Napoleon 
laughed violently ; indeed he did so frequently 
during the conversation. M. " Is it true that you 
said the Emperor of Russia was a bete sans le 
savoir, and the King of Prussia a savant bete ? " 
N. " No ; it is not true : the Emperor of Russia 
is a brave homme ; but the King of Prussia the 
greatest bete I ever knew : he kept me half an 
hour talking to me of my uniform and my buttons, 
and laid hold of my coat, so that at last I said, 
' You must ask my tailor.' " M. " The next time 
you invade Russia you should have the alliance of 
England." N. "Ay, ay, I committed a fault 
there." M. " Is it true, sire, that at council you 
used to cut the chairs, and even your throne, with 
a penknife ? " N. " Non, non ; ce sont de betises : 
ne croyez-vous pas que j' avals quelque autre chose 
a faire que de telles folies ? " M. " You are 
fortunate in having such good health." iV. " Yes ; 
I never was ill in my life." M. "Yet our foolish 
newspapers and storytellers made out that you 
VOL. I 24 



186 NAPOLEON AT ELBA ,Chap. V. 

1814. had all sorts of disorders, and one of a peculiar 
character." N. " Ah ! what was that ? " M. " I 
do not like to say." iV. " Nay, speak out ; I shall 
not be angry." M. " On a dit qu'a Fontainebleau 

vous avez attrap6 " N. "Ah, non ; je n'ai 

jamais eu une telle maladie de ma vie, ni aucune 
autre." He smiled, but said this seriously. Napo- 
leon said Lord Castlereagh was a " mauvais poli- 
tique." M. " Cependant c'6tait lui qui vous a fait 
abdiquer." iV. "Non, c'etait la trahison." M. 
asked Napoleon what he thought of Colonel 
Campbell. N. " Je le connais tr6s peu, ce mon- 
sieur ; mais pourquoi est-ce qu'il se trouve souvent 
chez moi ? " M. "To watch you, sire." N. 
" Judging from the English whom I have seen, 
I should say that they know very little what I 
have done, yet they are anxious to know what 
I shall do." Napoleon said he liked Frederick 
Douglas best of the English he had seen, adding, 
" Though he is only twenty-five, he looks like 
a man of forty- five," which was true enough. 
Napoleon spoke slightingly of the King of Naples, 
and called him a " magniflco lazzaroni." He said 
that Murat was the first to desert him. He re- 
peated his question about Paris ; and when he 
heard that his symbols and Ns were defaced, he 
said, " Ah ! c'est une bagatelle, etpeut-etre aurais- 
je dA jamais avoir mis mes N sur les Edifices." 
M. asked him if it was true that he had placed 
money in any foreign funds. Napoleon seemed 
hurt at this, and replied, " No ; never : how could 



Chap. V. MB. M.'s INTERVIEW WITH NAPOLEON 187 

you believe it ? I did everything I could to de- 1814. 
stroy your funds. Talleyrand might have bought 
into your funds ; I never did ; n«, not a penny." 
M. asked him what orders he wore on his coat. 
Napoleon said that one was the Legion of Honour, 
which he would never part with; the other the 
Iron Crown of Italy. M. remarked that troops 
of all nations would be proud to serve under him 
if wanted. Napoleon said that he had no money 
to pay them ; he had been obliged to borrow, 
having given the soldiers with him all the money 
he had. Napoleon asked M. where he lived, and 
being told at the Aigle Noir, said, " Very well, 
I will send for you again." Perceiving that M. 
frequently rubbed his eyes during their conversa- 
tion, he asked the reason of it. " Why," replied 
M., " I can scarcely believe my eyes that I am 
alone talking with you." This pleased him, and 
when M. talked of his delight and the fear he had 
of taking up too much of his time. Napoleon said, 
" I can assure you I am as glad to talk to you as 
you can be to talk to me; a stranger is a great 
entertainment for me." M. asked if he was not 
afraid of being assassinated. " Not by the Eng- 
lish," said Napoleon ; " they are not assassins. I 
am obliged to be cautious in regard to some others, 
especially the Oorsicans, some of whom have a 
strong feeling against me." 

I made a note of this conversation, at least as 
much as I remembered of it, on the same day that 
I heard it from my friend, who also told me that 



188 WOBTJRN — OAKLET Chap. V. 

1814. on quitting Napoleon he was accosted by Bertrand, 
who said, " So you have had a long conveusation 
with the Emperor ; he must have told you a great 
deal." M. said, " The Emperor was very con- 
descending ; he must be a very good-humoured 
man and neA^er in a passion." At this Bertrand 
smiled, and said, " I know him a little better than 
you." 

Of course, in recording this dialogue, I only tell 
the tale as it was told to me. My old schoolfellow 
was what is called a very cool hand, as his ques- 
tions to the Emperor sufficiently indicate ; but 
I do not believe that he was untruthful. I never 
heard him charged with that great defect, and 
I lived a good deal in his society in my younger 
days. 

Diary. December 14. — Battue to-day in Crawley 
Woods. Killed altogether sixty-five pheasants, 
and at least as many hares and rabbits. 

December 15. — Left Woburn. Arrived at Oakley. 
Dined with Lord W. Bussell, Greorge, Mrs. and 
Colonel Seymour. A stump-bred fox runs better 
than an earth-bred one. 

December 16. — Dinner as usual. Lady Sefton 
there. Lord Harrington's sister. She is the most 
ridiculous person I ever met ; takes any flattery ; 
talks of the veille cour, and dwelt with delight 
upon the Prince's attention to her at Brighton. 
He has given her one of his eight orders, the 
chain and medal with his own portrait bound with 
myrtles, to commemorate the late visit to Brighton 



Chap. V. THE DUKE IN PARIS 189 

and whicli she has hung at the left breast. The isu. 
joke at the Pavilion was to send a message to Sir 
Edmund Nagle at dinner, to tell him Lady Set'ton 
would drink a glass of cherry brandy with liim. 
" You see," said Lady Sefton to us, " Nagle was 
the butt ; a good man, but a great simpleton." 

Lady Tavistock told us several odd things of 
her. The Prince once nearly killed her by telling 
her she had a fine bust. She went nearly naked. 
She is more ignorant than can be conceived. Told 
Tavistock she heard of him at the Island of St. 
Gothan, and thought the costumes of Turkey 
printed by Mons. de Perriol's order were my 
making. 

The next day she showed us the exercise of the 
fan, how to express the passions by it, and, above 
all, how to throw it. The great proof of a good 
fan is its lying pinched at the top, by which it 
should always be handed. She danced a minuet 
with Lady Tavistock next night. 

December 17. — Young W. Russell told me one or 
two things of Paris, whence he is just returned. 
The Duke of Wellington is very unpopular — his 
nod is unsupportable. The Duke of Berri is hated. 
He struck an officer and even a common soldier 
on parade. 

Colonel Frederick Ponsonby, 12th Dragoons, 
told me at Woburn that he rode from Bordeaux 
to Toulouse to take the news of Napoleon's abdi- 
cation to Lord Wellington. He had difficulty 
galloping through the Erench posts : when arrived 



190 OAKLET Chap. V. 

1814 he found Wellington pulling on his boots in his 
shirt. lie had entered Toulouse an hour. " I 
have extraordinary news for you." "Ay, I 
thought so. I knew we should have peace ; I've 
long expected it." 

" No ; Napoleon has abdicated." 

" How abdicated ? Ay, 'tis time indeed. You 
don't say so, upon my honour ! Hurrah ! " said 
Wellington, turning round on his heel and snap- 
ping his fingers. 

December 18. — I left Oakley after much pressing 
to stay from all friends, and rode my mare to 
Welwyn. There I dined and wrote a letter to 
Mrs. Cuthbert, and one in French to " Coray." 

December 19. — The waiter here knew of Young, 
the " Night Thoughts," the famous Dr. Young, he 
called him ; the ostler did not. The bowling-green 
for which the parishioners of Welwyn were in- 
debted to the author of " Night Thoughts " I could 
learn nothing of. I rode my mare to Einchley, 
then turned ofp to Finchley Church, Hendon ; cross 
Edgware Road to Acton, Ealing, Brentford, and 
Whitton, where found the family as usual. 



CHAPTER VI 

DiART. December 24, 1814. — I rode up to isu. 
London, and at twelve set off with Lord Byron on 
his matrimonial scheme. . . . 

At Chesterford we parted, he for Sixmile 
Bottom, and I for Cambridge . I found S. B. 
Dayies and all my friends out of college. 

December 25. — Dined in Trinity College. 
Heard they have been throwing a collector 
of the property tax out of the window at St. 
Ives. . . . 

December 26. — Byron did not arrive until three, 
when we set off and went three stages to Wansford 
(in Northants), a capital inn. . . . Never was 
lover less in haste. . . . 

December 27. — Off at twelve. . . . Went as far 
as Newark in snow and rain. . . . Bead the new 
Gibbon ^ — ^delightful. . . . The bridegroom more 
and more less impatient. . . . Never was lover 
less in haste. . . . 

As to Gibbon, this reading miscellaneously 
gave me a literary ardour and infused a sort 

' The completion of the Miscellaneous Works of Edward Gibbon, 
with Memoirs of his Life and Writings by himself. Edited by the 
Earl of Sheffield. 

191 



192 SB AH AM Chap. VI. 

1814. of philosophic calm over me to which I have long 
been a stranger. . . . The pursuits and attain- 
ments of Gibbon are, though very noble and 
extensive, not absolutely beyond the reach of any 
lover of literature. 

The researches of Newton and the brilliancy 
of Voltaire are objects of admiration, but of 
despair. . . . 

December 28. — We travelled to and slept at 
^Ferrybridge. I read La Bruy^re, who is a base 
flatterer of Louis XIV., and a bigot, or a pretended 
bigot. . . . He actually praises the King for his 
persecution of the Huguenots. . . . 

December 29. — "We went as far as Thirsk to- 
day. . . . 

December 30. — At eight o'clock in the evening 
we arrived at Seaham, Sir Ralph Milbanke's. . . . 
Miss Milbanke came to me when alone in the 
library, and with great frankness took me by the 
hand at once. . . . Presently in tottered her 
father. . . . Miss Milbanke is rather dowdy- 
looking, and wears a long and high dress (as 
Byron had observed), though she has excellent 
feet and ankles. . . . The lower part of her face 
is bad, the upper, expressive, but not handsome, 
yet she gains by inspection. . . . 

She heard Byron coming out of his room, ran to 
meet him, threw her arms round his neck and 
burst into tears. She did this not before us. . . . 
Lady Milbanke was so much agitated that she had 



CflAi'. VI. SIB, RALFH MILBANKE 193 

gone to her room . . . our delay tlie cause. . . . I814 
Indeed, I looked foolish in finding out an excuse 
for our want of expedition. . . . 

Miss Milbanke, before us, was silent and 
modest, but very sensible and quiet, and inspiring 
an interest which it is easy to mistake for love. 
With me, she was frank and open, without little 
airs and affectations. . . . 

Of my friend she seemed dotingly fond, gazing' 
with delight on his bold and animated face . . . 
this regulated, however, with the most entire 
decorum. Byron appears to love her personally, 
when in her company. . . . 

Old Sir Ralph Milbanke is an honest, red-faced 
spirit, a little prosy, but by no means devoid of 
humour. . . . My lady, who has been a dasher 
in her day, and has ridden the grey mare, is 
pettish and tiresome, but clever. . . . Both are 
dotingly fond of Miss Milbanke. 

There were in the house a family of Mr. Hoare 
of Durham, confidential counsel and agent of Sir 
Ealph Milbanke, and the Rev. Thomas Noel, 
rector of Kirkby Mallory, and illegitimate son of 
Lord Wentworth. . . . Byron won his heart by 
his kindness and open manners. . . . 

Sir Ralph and Co. told stories. . . . Sir Ralph 
said that Moore, Archbishop of Canterbury, in- 
formed him that he had changed the Archiepis- 
copal signature from Cant, to Cantuar. . . . 

Of the Bishop of Durham, Shute, he told 
that the Bishop, when a tutor at Oxford, said to 

VOL. I 25 



194 SEAHAM Chap. VI. 

1814. Lord Hampden ..." The friendship which I 
have for my Lord, your father ; my respect for 
my Lord, the Bishop, your uncle ; and the 
peculiar situation in which I stand with my Lord 
God, etc." 

Also that Shute desired some young man not 
to call his task an imposition. " You're a man 
of family, I'm a man of family ; call it a literary 
transaction between two men of fashion." 

A gentleman, who has lately seen Napoleon, 
told Hoare that Napoleon said to him, " There are 
but three generals in the world : myself. Lord 
Wellington, and that drunkard Bliicher." 

Byron told me that one day at dinner, Lady C. 
Lamb said to George Lamb, " George, what's the 
seventh commandment P " " Thou shalt not 
hother . . ." 

December 31. — I walked on the seashore, which 
is close to the Mansion House of Seaham. The 
sight of the waters had an indescribable effect 
upon me. It was a fine, sunshiny day. 

I had some private talk with Hoare and Miss 
Milbanke on Lord Byron's affairs, and I began to 
entertain doubts of Hanson's probity. 

The young lady is most attractive. 

We had dinner at six, and had a little jollity 
upon the signing of the settlements, Avhich 
was done in the m.orning. I put my name to 
a deed which is to provide for the younger 
children of the marriage ; my coadjutor is Sir 
T. Liddell. 



Chap. VI. BTEON's WEDDING 195 

I talked and talked in the evening, which I814. 
concluded jollily with a mock marriage, I being 
Lady B., Noel parsonifying, and Hoare giving me 
away. Shook hands for New Year. 

January 1. — Walked on the shore ; the Hoares is 15. 
left us. We had not quite so jolly a dinner as 
yesterday, but fair, considering. 

Byron at night said, " Well, Hobhouse, this is 
our last night; to-morrow I shall be Annabella's." 
(Absit omen.) 

January 2. — I dressed in full-dress, with white 
gloves, and found Byron up and dressed, with Noel 
in canonicals. Lady Milbanke and Sir Ralph 
soon came, also dressed. Her Ladyship could 
not make tea, her hand shook. 

Miss Milbanke did not appear. The Rev. 
Wallace came in, also in canonicals. At half- 
past ten we parted company; Byron and I went 
into his room, the others upstairs. 

In ten minutes we walked up into the drawing- 
room, and found kneeling-mats disposed for the 
couple and the others. The two clergymen, the 
father and mother, and myself, were in waiting 
when Miss Milbanke came in, attended by her 
governess, the respectable Mrs. Clermont. 

She was dressed in a muslin gown trimmed with 
lace at the bottom, with a white muslin curricle 
jacket, very plain indeed, with nothing on her 
head. 

Noel was decent and grave. He put them, 
Byron and Miss Milbanke, on thei^ QU^sliionig. Lady 



196 SEAHAM Chap. VI. 

1815. Milbanke placed Sir Ralph next to his daughter ; 
I stood next to Sir Kalph ; my Lady and Mrs. 
Clermont were rather opposite in the corner. 

Wallace read the responses. 

Miss Milbanke was as firm as a rock, and, 
during the whole ceremony, looked steadily at 
Byron. She repeated the words audibly and well. 
Byron hitched at first when he said, " I, George 
Gordon," and when he came to the words, " With 
all my worldly goods I thee endow," looked 
at me with a half-smile. They were married at 
eleven. 

I shook Lady Byron by the hand after the 
parson, and embraced my friend with unfeigned 
delight. He was kissed by my Lady Milbanke. 
Lady Milbanke and Mrs. Clermont were much 
affected. 

Lady Byron went out of the room, but soon 
returned to sign the register, which Wallace and 
I witnessed. 

She again retired hastily, her eyes full of tears 
when she looked at her father and mother, and 
completed her conquest, her innocent conquest. 

She came in her travelling-dress soon after, a 
slate-coloured satin pelisse trimmed with white 
fur, and sat quietly in the drawing-room. Byron 
was calm and as usual. I felt as if I had buried 
a friend. 

I put a complete collection of Byron's Poems, 
bound in yellow morocco, into the carriage for Lady 
Byron as a wedding gift. It was inscribed thus ; 



Chap. VI. BYRON's WEDDING 197 

"To THE Eight Honourable Lady Byron. 1815. 

" These volumes, the production of a poet, the 
admiration of his countrymen, the delight of his 
associates, and the approved choice of her under- 
standing and her heart, are presented, as a 
sincere token of congratulation, on her union 
with his hest friend, hy her faithful and devoted 
servant, 

" John 0. Hobhouse." 

At a little hefore twelve I handed Lady Byron 
downstairs and into her carriage. When I wished 
her many years of happiness, she said, " If I am 
not happy it will be my own fault." 

Of my dearest friend I took a melancholy leave. 
He was unwilling to leave my hand, and I had 
hold of his out of the window when the carriage 
drove off. 

I left Seaham at twelve. Lady Milbanke asked 
me if she had not behaved well, as if she had been 
the mother of Iphigenia. It is not wonderful 
that the marriage of an only daughter and child, 
born seventeen years after marriage, should cause 
a pang at parting. . . . 

The little bells of Seaham church struck up 
after the wedding, and half a dozen fired muskets 
in front of the house. 

The couple went to Halnaby, Sir B. Milbanke's 
estate in Yorkshire. . . . 

I arrived, on January 6, in London ; there 
drove down to Whitton, where I found all my 
lovely sisters well, and in eager welcome. 



CHAPTER VII 

1815. Diary. January 21, 1815. — Dined at Tuitnam ^ 
with the E.ev. Arthur Champagne, whose sister 
married the late Lord Uxhridge. He showed us a 
paper from a minister of Sir William Scott's, stating 
that there are 11,600 odd livings in England, of 
which 2,000 are in ecclesiastical possessions — 
eleven hundred (I thought he said 6,000) in the 
gift of the Crown, and the remainder in the hands 
of lay patrons and corporations, but that dividing 
these between the beneficed clergy of England, 
each living was worth only £160 per annum. 

Serjeant Marshall told me that he was sitting at 
the council table with William Pitt at Bristol, who 
said to him, " Marshall, I have been trying to do 
the forty-seventh proposition of Euclid, but I 
cannot get through it. I thought myself a decent 
mathematician, but find I have forgot the ABC 
(or some such expression). How do you do it? " 
Marshall did make out the diagram and do it. 

Mr. Hatfield told us he recollects Pitt well at 
Pembroke College, a tall, ill-looking boy, who 
kept two horses, for his health, it was supposed : 
not notorious for any talent. He met him often 
at H. Bankes's rooms in Trinity Hall. 

■■ Twickenhain was then called Twit-nam or Tuit'nam... 
i98 



Chap. VII. VOLTAIKB S " MEROPE " 199 

Champagne, on the contrary, told us that 1815. 
Wilson, Pitt's tutor, told him that at fourteen 
Pitt had learned everything he could teach him, 
and that he told Lord Chatham so. 

At Champagne's I read a page or two of some 
remarks on the English language and strictures on 
actors by one Baker, in which I find him making 
the very same objections to Garrick as are now 
made to Kean. Amongst other things, complains 
that Grarrick tries to make every word natural. 

HoUoway's prints of the cartoons look ill beside 
Morghen's " Leonardo da Vinci." I saw, too, 
" One of you shall betray Me." 

Champagne gave us a good dinner, and good 
old port of Erank Chali^, to whom the Prince 
of Wales said : " If I were not what I am, 
I would be Prank Chali^ ; " so Chalie told 
Champagne. 

January 22. — At night I read — oh shame ! for 
the first time, "TheMerope" of Voltaire, tinctured 
with the genius of that great man, full of catching 
lines, e.g. : 

Quand on a tout perdu, quand on n'a plus d'espoir, 
La vie est une honte, et la mort un devoir ; 

which has been often used by suicides in Prance. 

B-eceived a letter from Byron to-day, in which 
he says I made a thumping mistake about his 
not wishing to sell Newstead. Now this it is to 
have to do with a head totally incapable of 
receiving certain ideas, and with a wag ! I 



200 LONDON Chap. VII. 

1815. shall go on, however, and try to do Mm good 
in spite of himself. 

Book:. — On Eehruaryl6,1815,Idined in company 
with Sheridan, at my friend Mr. D. Kinnaird's, 
32, Olarges Street. The party was small, com- 
posed only of Mr. Peter Moore, M.P., Mr. Edward 
Smedley, the poet, to whom there is a memorial in 
the cloisters of Westminster Abhey ; Mr. Perry of 
the Chronicle, and Mr. Scrope Davies, Pellow of 
King's College, Cambridge, to whom Lord Byron 
dedicated his "Parisina." Mr. Sheridan was then 
very much dilapidated ; he was, in fact, in ruins ; 
but still he was Sheridan, and, until he had taken 
too much wine, very well worth listening to. Mr. 
Perry told of Burke that, during Admiral Keppel's 
trial, he went to the house of Mr. Burke on busi- 
ness, and, knocking at the door, Burke opened it, 
and appeared with his spectacles over his forehead, 
saying grufliy, " Who are you, and what do you 
want ? " "I am Mr. Perry, and I wanted to see 
Mr. Burke, but I find he is not at home." "Mr. 
Perry," said Burke, "I stand corrected; I beg 
your pardon." Sheridan then spoke with the 
highest admiration of Burke, put him next to 
Bacon, and said he would always be reckoned 
amongst the three or four great men that our 
country had produced. " I am sure," continued 
he, "that Charles Pox, and much more my 
humble self, will be known to future ages as 
having stood by the side of Burke. He 'was a 
wonderful speaker in early life, and also in his 



Chap. VII. SHEEIDAN's OPINION OF BURKE 201 

latter parliamentary days ; but intermediately he 1815, 
wearied tlie House, speaking on every subject, and 
not speaking well." This was Sheridan's pane- 
gyric, and he then came to the other portion of his 
portrait. " But he was a bad man, an interested 
man ; in company vulgar, either haughty and 
overbearing, or mean and cringing ; he loved 
flattery. It was I who recommended Dr. Lawrence 
to him." Lawrence was the son of a watchmaker 
at Bath ; he had a " decent education, and, being 
a very good scholar, was introduced to my wife's 
relation Linley, and on young Linley's death 
wrote a very pretty poem, which the father set to 
music, and from that time took a great liking for 
the youth. He recommended Lawrence ^ to me, 
and I got him some newspaper work. It happened 
that Burke wanted some one to ferret out infor- 
mation from the shoals of Indian papers to be 
consulted on Hastings's trial. I sent Lawrence to 
him. Burke told Eox that I had sent him a 
monster. The next time, however, he met me, he 
said, ' Upon my word, your friend Lawrence is a 
very useful young man ' ; and at our next meeting 
he said, 'Lawrence gains very much upon me.' 
Shortly afterwards his expression was, ' I can do 
nothing without Lawrence.' Subsequently he 
became the intimate friend of Burke, and was his 
executor. 

" When Lawrence commenced civilian he gave 

' Dr. Thomas Lawrence, 1711-83, the friend and physician of 
Dr. Johnson. 

VOL. I 26 



202 LONDON Chap. VII. 

1815. a dinner to his friends. After dinner Burke rose 
and said, ' In compliment to our host I must give 
one toast, wishing him success in his calling : 
Perpetual war and universal adultery.' " 

Sheridan went on to say that " Lawrence drew 
out the prose plan of the ' Rolliad,' and was the 
author of some of the poetry. Tickell designed 
the genealogical tree. Fitzpatrick was the poet 
of the concern. I (Sheridan) never wrote a line, 
but gave hints. We had a Rolliad Club. The 
Ministers were very angry that, in spite of losing 
our places and our popularity, we preserved our 
good humour and our spirits. This was the only 
benefit we derived from the ' Rolliad.' Rolle was 
the Jack Fuller of those days. We pitched on 
him because he had annoyed Burke. I was re- 
puted to be the author of the whole work. When 
travelling into the West of England, I Avent to 
Exeter, and, as the assizes were going on, I went 
into court. RoUe was High Sheriff for the county ; 
and, seeing me, he rose, and handed me to a seat 
next the judge. Every one laughed, and looked 
upon him as the meanest fellow in the world for 
caressing his banterer. 

" Burke," said Sheridan, " spoke with a brogue, 
and sometimes with much violence of voice and 
gesture.' 

" Burke was a very indolent man, and once, 

' Sir Eobert Adair confirmed this to me, and mentioned that at the 
trial of Hastings some tumult was heard in the Hall, which Burke 
chose to think arose from an attempt of Hastings to escape, and 
accordingly he called out loudly, " Put him in irons." 



Chap. VII. RICHARD TICKELL 203 

talking of the North American Indians, said, I815, 
' They enjoy the highest boon of Heaven, supreme 
and perpetual indolence.' Pox was as indolent 
as Burke : no man loved doing nothing so much 
as he did. He used to loll at length upon the 
sunny banks of St. Anne's Hill, opposite to a wall 
covered with fruit trees. The jays at first were 
scared away by him ; but Pox cried out one day, 
' I have accomplished it at last. The birds don't 
care for me. I don't disturb them, and they don't 
disturb me.' Some one once remarked, ' Ah ! 
Mr. Pox, how delightful it must be to loll along 
in the sun, at your ease, with a book in your 
hand ! ' ' Why the book — why the book ? ' said 
Pox." Mr. Sheridan said of Tickell,^ " He was 
a wicked fellow, and loved mischief for mischief's 
sake — solitary mischief. Some country people 
were dancing in the loft of a barn at Chertsey. 
The loft was supported only by one prop, and to 
this Tickell tied a rope attached to a dray, and con- 
cealed himself until he had the pleasure, when the 
dray-horse moved on, of seeing the loft tumble down, 
and the dancers falling, head over heels, some into 
the street, some into the river. He put a bottle of 
assafcetida into Lawrence's pocket. The doctor sat 
down upon it and broke it. All those near him ran 
away, holding their noses. TiCkell's last exploit 
was throwing himself off the roof of a house." 

' Kichard TickeU (1751-1793), grandson of Thomas Tickell the 
poet, was a political writer, and author of some plays ; he married a. 
relative of Sheridan, 



204 LONDON Chap. VII. 

1815. It was on this occasion that Sheridan gave us 
an account of O'Byrne, the Bishop of Meath, 
whom he and Mr. Perry declared was the most 
profligate man alive. He was a Roman Catholic 
originally, but changed his religion, and, even 
when a curate, talked with the utmost arrogance 
and presumption of clerical dignities, saying that 
bishops were barons, and, if he ever rose to the 
bench, he would come into the House of Lords 
with a sword on. He was private secretary to the 
Duke of Portland, to Lord Carlisle, and to Lord 
Pitzwilliam. The latter gave him his bishopric. 

" O'Byrne was employed by the party to write 
for them. We had a Saturday paper, called the 
Englishman. I," said Sheridan, " wrote the first 
two numbers ; Pox the third. It had a great sale ; 
but we grew lazy, and the Saturday paper some- 
times did not make its appearance until Tuesday. 
O'Byrne undertook to have always a Saturday 
number ready, and we wrote no more. The English- 
man fell to the ground, and Pox said, ' Ay, ay, 

I knew what would come of it. Our d d 

punctuality would be the ruin of it.' O'Byrne was 
with me at Heston. It was on a Saturday, and 
we asked him to preach the next day. To this he 
consented, on condition that I would write the 
sermon. I agreed ; and, after the party broke up, 
sat down to my task. My sermon was in praise 
of liberality ; and, opening the New Testament, I 
selected such passages as recommended that virtue ; 
but I confess that, where the texts did not appear 



Chap. Vn. SHERIDAN AND BISHOP o'bTRNE 205 

to me quite strong or applicable enougli, I took a isio. 
liberty with the Apostles, and slightly bent them 
to my purpose. The next morning O'Byrne re- 
ceived the sermon and took it to church. The 
Childs of Osterley were there, and O'Byrne directed 
his discourse to their pew. It so happened that 
old Mr. Child was at that time exceedingly un- 
popular, on account of prosecuting some poor 
parishioners for carrying away garden- stuff that 
had been thrown over the wall. Of this neither I 
nor O'Byrne knew anything ; but as our parson, 
out of politeness, kept his eyes fixed upon the 
great man, he and his family were convinced that 
the lecture against parsimony was intended for 
the owner of Osterley. Accordingly, the incum- 
bent called upon O'Byrne, and told him that his 
patron would never forgive him, adding, that if 
O'Byrne had quoted the Apostles fairly he might 
have been justified ; but he had garbled them, in 
order to apply their reproaches to Mr. Child. 
O'Byrne, looking into his Bible, found out the 
trick, and complained of it to Mr. Fox, who said, 
' I wish to Heaven you fellows would mind what 
you are about, instead of quizzing one another.' 
O'Byrne," continued Sheridan, " professed the 
greatest regard for me ; but, looking over Tickell's 
papers, I found a letter from O'Byrne, congratula- 
ting Tickell on his secession, with Burke, from the 
Whigs, and especially on his getting out of the 
hands of that rascal Sheridan." 

Mr. Sheridan then said that Mr, Fox did not 



206 LONDON Chap. VII. 

1816. like to read for his speeclies. " Now," said he, 
" I can do nothing without reading : I must 
have a hrief . I worked for three months in the 
cause of the tobacconists, who gave me a silver 
cup, with embossed figures representing me as 
Hercules brandishing a club over the monster 
Excise. On the club is engraved the number 
of the minority who voted with me against Pitt. 
I refused the cup at first, but Fox said, ' Pooh ! 
nonsense — a little memorial of their attachment.' 
I have got it now, and it is all I have for thirty- 
two years of public service." Sheridan then in- 
veighed in strong terms against the Vienna 
Congress — crowned scoundrels cutting up Europe 
like carcass-butchers, and cruelly maltreating 
their subjects who rescued them from Napoleon, 
and silencing us by the dirty bribe of a crown for 
Hanover ; " for," he added, " bating the alli- 
teration, there never was a sillier saying than 
that of Eox, about Hanover being as dear to us as 
Hampshire." 

Diary. February 16. — Sheridan told that Lord 
Ebrington had had an interview and dined with 
Napoleon, who talked with the utmost freedom 
to him. Confessed that he had ordered his doctor 
adoucir les maux of such as could not possibly 
be moved from Jaffa ; that the doctor, un hrave 
homme, had refused, saying his profession was to 
cure, not to kill, et il avait raison. For this 
reason Napoleon would not shoot Duroc when he 
asked him. He (Napoleon) said that he had taken 



Chap. VII. ANECDOTES OE SHERIDAN 207 

all the horses, even from his staff, for the sick, 1815. 
and that only ahout twenty-two were put to sleep 
by laudanum, which was better than leaving them 
to be mutilated by the Turks, and said it was 
according to all the laws of war. They had been 
dismissed before, and were taken in arms. 

Sheridan said that if he came into Parliament 
again he could squeeze Whitbread to death in his 
hand. Peter Moore said Whitbread would agree 
with nobody, that he, Whitbread, and another 
were in the Drury Lane Committee, and Whit- 
bread would never do anything without squabbling, 
even there. 

Sheridan told us of independent Drake, a gaunt, 
pale, tall fellow, getting up one night in the 
House to attack the Minister's delay, and saying, 
starting up at once, with his arm stretched out 
towards Pitt, and looking like a ghost : " Behold 
the very figure of procrastination ! " The House 
burst into a laugh, and Drake sat down. 

I came away at twelve, Sheridan having been 
taken into a hackney coach half an hour before, and 
rode off on the box of my father's coach, which had 
taken a party to see Kean in Macbeth, to Whitton. 

Kean tells Kinnaird that he has often acted the 
third act of Othello in the same manner as now 
calls doAvn such thunders, when the whole house 
laughed. "After that," says he, "can you think 
I care much for the public taste ? " 

Scrope and I laughed about Sheridan taking 
great delight in talking of his estate at Leather- 



208 LONDON .Chap. VIl. 

1815. head, where he said he has 1,500 acres, and shall 
have 2,200 by an approaching purchase. He is 
going to take out his dedimus to act as a Justice 
ill Leatherhead. 

February 27. — Wrote to Byron and to Lady 
Byron, sending her my autograph of the Prince 
de Ligne, which he put into my hand when I 
took leave of him at Vienna, November 28, 1813. 

March 11. — Received this morning from my 
father the following letter : 

" Lord Cochrane has escaped from prison ; 
Buonaparte has escaped from Elba. I write this 
from the House of Commons, and the intelligence 
iu both cases seems to rest on good authority, 
and is believed. — B. H." 

Both are certainly true ; Cullen came down 
to-day and confirmed the whole of both. Erom 
the first I feel sure of Napoleon's success. 

March 13. — I ride up to London with Cullen. 
In the morning I find that the Moniteur of the 
10th had given every hope of Napoleon being put 
down, and Kinnaird and others treating Napoleon's 
attempt as a piece of desperation, but, alas ! by 
five o'clock the Moniteur of the 11th comes to 
London, which states Napoleon to have slept at 
Bourgoin, four posts from Lyons, the night of the 
10th, and " il aurait du entrer Lyons " the 11th — 
that Lyons, which, in the paper of the day before, 
is said to have opened her arms to Monsieur and 
his generals. In the Moniteur of the 10th is 
given a ridiculous account of Napoleon's invasion. 



Chap. VII. ESCAPE OP NAPOLEON 20^ 

He left Elba on the 28tli with about 1,100 1815. 
men of Corsica, Elba, Italy, and a few Erench. 
One ship tried to land at Antibes, but was fired 
upon by the fort. He landed at Cannes in the 
department of Var on March 1, with four pieces 
of cannon and a handsome coach, which preceded 
his march, three drums, etc. The cannons were 
left at the gate of the first town. His men de- 
serted. Two or three Corporal's parties were sent 
to summon as many forts, and were disarmed. 

Clermont Perrigeaux's partner tells Kinnaird 
there is not the least danger for Louis. The 
Chambers of Peers and Deputies are convoked ; 
they promise fair; the National Guards declare 
their devotion. Soult, Minister of War, addresses 
the soldiers, but in the Moniteur of the 11th 
Napoleon entered Sernon on the 2nd, Castellane 
on the 3rd, Barreme on the same day, Digne on 
the 4th, and according to all appearance, Gap 
on the next day. However, he was at Bourgoin 
on the 10th. 

The Prefect of the Upper Alps says the spirit 
of the people is good, but that they were taken by 
surprise and have not done what could be wished. 
Opinions varied wonderfully at the Cocoa-Tree 
in two hours. I was the only person who would 
bet even on Napoleon's success at first, and 
latterly no one would back the Bourbons at all. 

Cavendish Bradshaw told me that at Rouen he 
dined a short time ago with a mess of eighteen 
officers, and when he was going to give the 

VOL. I 27 



210 liONBON Chap. VTI. 

1815. health of Louis XVIII., one whispered to him : 
" Eor God's sake, don't do that unless you wish 
to he turned out of the barracks." Is there any 
doubt of Napoleon's adventure ? 

I took a sandwich at the Cocoa-Tree, and went 
to Byron's box with the family, and saw Kean in 
Richard II. He was very great, and gave a 
wonderful interest to the part. The play, how- 
ever, was heavy for the two first acts and a half. 

The Corn Bill disturbances are dropped in the 
universal anxiety respecting Napoleon, notwith- 
standing the Coroner's inquest brought in a verdict 
of wilful murder over the body of the midshipman 
who was shot by the soldiers off the windows of 
Robinson's house in Burlington Street, and not- 
withstanding Robinson was fool enough to cry 
in the House of Commons when alluding to that 
transaction. 

Napoleon Buonaparte is declared a rebel and 
a traitor by the French Government, and 100,000 
louis d'or set upon his head. His adherents are 
declared the same. He is to be taken before the 
first military commission and to undergo the 
sentence of a Court-martial instantly. Came 
bacl<; to Whitton. 

March 14. — Wrote to Lord Sidmouth, asking 
him for despatches for Paris or Italy, and also 
if I might apply without binding myself to 
parties for the G.P.R.^ uniform. I employ myself 
in making preparations for departure. 

' George, Prince Regent. 



Chap. VII. NAPOLEON's JOURNEY TO PARIS 211 

March 17. — Letter from Gockburn, stating he 1815. 
fears all is over in France. General Marchand 
has been killed by his own troops, who joined 
Napoleon. Monsieur retreated from Lyons, which 
is said to have received Napoleon with open arms, 
to Clermont. Soult leaves the War Department, 
Clarke takes it. Monsieur can't depend on his 
soldiers, nor Massena, who is said to be firm to 
the Bourbons. Measures taken for the defence 
of Paris. Napoleon is said to be 390 miles only 
from the capital. Grenoble taken with twenty- 
four pieces of cannon. Embargo on the shipping 
in the French ports. 

By the morning's post of yesterday, it seems 
Murat has marched to the North of Italy, and 
on the 28th issued a proclamation to the Italians 
from himself and Napoleon, JEhnperor of the 
French and King of Italy, promising the inde- 
pendence of Italy. All seems to have been done 
in concert between the two : the inattention to 
this probability is miraculous. 

Napoleon had an agent at Naples when the 
British had no Minister. Murat kept 80,000 men 
on foot under pretence of marching against the 
Pope. His proclamation when he joined the 
Grand Alliance, his duplicity of conduct before 
that period, the manner in which he had been 
treated since; everything justified the suspicion 
that the new King of Naples would join his 
relation instantly. The unpopularity of the 
Austrians in Italy was too apparent to be mis- 



212 liONDON Chap. VH. 

1815, taken for a moment. At Milan and Verona 
20,000 of them are stated to have been massacred, 
and Bellegarde to have fled. Switzerland too is 
in arms against the deliverers of Europe; 18,000 
soldiers are ready to co-operate with Napoleon in 
the Pays de Vaud. Now shall we see the true 
merits of Lord Castlereagh. 

From Baillie I had a letter on last Sunday, 
dated Vienna. He says : " Lord Castlereagh having 
divided Saxony, given Poland to Russia, and 
Italy to Austria, is returned home to receive the 
thanks of a grateful Parliament." 

He tells me that the Emperor Alexander and 
a Countess Wierbord, or some such name, have 
had a dressing match. They met, and by a signal 
left a common room. The Countess returned 
fresh-dressed in one minute and twenty-five 
seconds, the Emperor in one minute and fifty 
seconds. General Czernichef and Sophie Zichy 
had another match. Whilst these mummeries 
are performing. Napoleon puts his foot on the 
French shores and exclaims, " Le Gongres est 
dissout." 

March 18. — This day, having packed up all my 
travelling wardrobe, I bid farewell to Whitton, 
and rode up to London, where, going into Murray's 
shop, I was greeted with the intelligence that 
things had taken a favourable turn in France ; 
that Drouot and the two Lallemands had been 
taken and shot for traitors ; that Napoleon was 
staying at Lyons ; that the Marshals Ney, Mortier, 



Chap. VII. GEORGE COLMAN 213 

Macdonald, and Massena were hastening to sur- i8i5. 
round him. I was in high spirits, and hastened to 
the Cocoa-Tree, where I vomited forth my news 
to a gaping crowd. 

I dined with Mr. Pochin, 13, Grosvenor Place, 
where I met Sir H. B. Dudley, who betted little 
Knight fifteen to five against Napoleon ! We had 
grosse chere, and I stayed till late, talking with 
Lady Harewood about Lord John Townshend and 
the Cambridge affair. 

March 19. — I have a letter from Lord Sidmouth 
telling me he concludes I shall not think of going 
abroad in the present circumstances, but appoint- 
ing a meeting to-morrow. News alters a little 
to-day for the worse. 

I dine with D. Kinnaird, where I met Sheridan, 
Lord Erskine, Lord Alvanley, S. B. Davies, Major . 
Armstrong, Brummell, and Colman. 

Book. — I had a strong desire to see the latter, 
of whom I had heard much, which was not realised 
on this occasion. He was a lively little man, and 
talked like an author, saying that he was scribbling 
something for the Edinhurgh against Walter Scott, 
and repeating some of the verses to Sheridan 
across the table. I thought them bad enough. 
Lord Erskine was inflamed by this example, and 
said, "Give me a pen, and I will write an 
epigram." He did; it was about the Corn Law 
Bill and the lawyers. I recollect only one line 
of it: 

By losing assizes I lost all my bread. 



214 LONDON Chap. Vn. 

1815. He wrote another epigram before dinner, and 
read it after dinner: it was damned by common 
consent. He had his green ribbon on, and he was 
detected slyly looking at it; and as the wine 
circulated, pushed his coat down to exhibit his 
honours. It was impossible to avoid laughing at 
his vanity, and all the party burst out into roars 
as he left the room. He returned unexpectedly, 
just as Sheridan was telling some story to ex- 
emplify the egregious folly of this consummate 
advocate. 

Two years after this I passed several days in 
company with Lord Erskine at Sir Prancis 
Burdett's, in Wiltshire. He was as playful as a 
child ; danced at the servants' ball, pulled ofE his 
wig to show his magnificent head, repeated some 
verses which he had written, when in the 
army, against a Middlesex jury, and charmed 
us all by the gaiety and simplicity of his 
manners. 

My Westminster school-fellow, Lord Alvanley, 
on this occasion, as on all others, was the most 
agreeable of the company. He did not talk much, 
but what he said was pointed and witty, without 
sarcasm or ill-nature, made a joke of his own 
indiscretions, asked if there was any chance of the 
ten tribes of Israel being recovered, as he had 
exhausted the other two, and had called out the 
conscription of next year. Brummell, the famous 
beau, then pretty much in the same condition as 
Alvanley, was very agreeable, and seemed, to me 



Chap. VII. SHERIDAN AND BETJMMELL 215 

at least, a well-read man — a good companion for 1815. 
the guests then at table. 

Sheridan was not in spirits on that day, but he 
tgld us one or two amusing theatrical stories. Of 
Palmer the comedian he spoke as being the first 
talker in every company, very clever and sen- 
tentious, with " a gravity would make you split," 
and with moralities in his mouth little correspond- 
ing with his real character. He was, so Sheridan 
said, the original of Joseph Surface. " On one 
occasion Palmer applied to him for an advance of 
his salary, which was refused; and he was 
reminded of the broken promises that he had 
made only three months ago, when applying for 
the same favour : ' What ! ' said Palmer, ' Mr. 
Sheridan and a retrospect ! oh ! oh ! ' " "I had 
never," said Sheridan, " heard of that crime 
before ; but thought it was something very 
horrid to be guilty of a retrospect." This 
was the last time I was ever in company with 
Sheridan. 

Diary. March 19. — Brummell, the son of an 
army tailor, and for a long time the top of the 
male " ton," the king of well-dressed dandies, is 
really an agreeable man and tolerably read. S. B. 
Davies tells me he is £40,000 worse than nothing. 
We had no very great things to-day, considering 
our expectations. 

March 20. — I went to Lord Sidmouth at the 
Home Office. Whilst I waited, the Duke of 
York, Lord Uxbridge, and other generals came in. 



216 LONDON Chap. VII. 

1815. Lord Exmouth passed through, and told me the 
news of Ney having defeated Napoleon and taken 
800 men was not true. 

Lord Sidmouth told me that His Majesty's 
Government did not choose to risk or think them- 
selves justified in risking the person of any 
English gentleman, so that I could not have 
despatches. He offered me a letter to our Foreign 
Minister; these I knew I could huy for two 
guineas, so I took my leave with thanks. 

I met Lord Lowther, who despaired of events, 
and from this morning all the hope I had on 
Saturday was lost. I called at the Board. Oopk- 
burn and Taylor give up all. I got letters from 
the latter for Geneva to H. Addington and 
Pazakerley, for I now determined to go to Ostend 
and into Dutch Elanders. Afterwards I went to 
Long Acre looking at carriages. 

I dined with poor Sastres, who is as deaf as 
a post, but still retains his spirit. He told us a 
good saying, attributing it to Voltaire. 

A soldier, who was ordered to give no quarter, 
had a man down, who cried out : "Ah, la vie, la 
vie," but returned for answer : "II n'y a pas 
moyen, demandez toute autre chose." He wrote 
three introductory letters for me. 

March 21. — Still uncertain — news worse and 
worse. Saw at Kinnaird's bank a Mr. Empson, 
who left Paris on the 15th, and who said there 
was no doubt as to the event, but that Napoleon 
would take quiet, unbloody possession of the 



Chap. VIl. tTNCERTAINTY IN PRANCE 217 

throne. The English were in great odium, even 1815. 
with the BoTirhonists, the report being that they 
had let loose Buonaparte to cause a civil war in 
Prance. 

Mortier could do nothing with the troops at 
Lille — they had gone over to Napoleon. No battle 
had been fought. Buonaparte left Lyons on the 
13th. He has travelled from fifty to sixty miles 
a day in a carriage, escorted by twenty dragoons, 
a league before his army. 

Mr. Empson said the King had determined to 
abide the event in Paris, although some of the 
courtiers wished him to fly to La Vendue. The 
rallying point is now fixed for Melun, twenty-five 
miles from Paris ; but he says the National Guards 
will not march from Paris, and there are doubts 
whether they will fight in it. All is quiet at 
Paris. No danger is apprehended for women and 
children, but the English men are running as fast 
as possible homewards. They are insulted on the 
road. Still, some of our papers hold out hopes, 
and the Moniteurs are crowded with addresses 
from regiments and towns, and all good news up 
to the 19th. Ney is marching in pursuit of Napo- 
leon, who has only 6,000 dispirited, fatigued soldiers, 
300 cavalry. 

I rode down to Whit ton. 

It seems strange, but it is true, that Admiral 
Bowley told Mr. Oockburn that, when he com- 
manded the squadron ofP Genoa, if he had met 
Napoleon with transports full of soldiers and the 

VOL. I 28 



218 LONDON Chap. VII. 

1815. flag of invasion flying, he could have done nothing 
against him — he had no orders. The captain 
of the man-of-war before Elba says the same 
thing. 

Colonel Campbell's brother is in London, and 
says the Colonel gave notice to the Government 
two months ago of the scheme. The Consul at 
Leghorn is said to have done the same. The plan 
was long organised. The King was to have been 
killed in the Tuileries, Le Pebre Desnouette was 
to have marched to Paris, and, in fact, a tumult 
and cry of " Vive V Empereur " was raised in the 
Salle des Mar^chaux and put down. Two or three 
were killed. 

Soult has been turned out, it is reported, for 
working false telegraphs ; but the King does not 
dare to punish him or thinks him innocent. Every 
one in London is sick at heart. Lord Lowther 
showed me a letter from Madame Moreau at 
Brighton. She talks of the "cruel sort de sa 
malliewreuse patrie.'^ 

Whilst talking with him in Parliament Street, 
Lord Cochrane went down to the House of 
Commons in a hackney coach, and took his seat 
on the Treasury Bench — this was before the House 
met — Jones, Keeper of the King's Bench, with 
others, entered and seized him, and, after a 
struggle, carried him off. He had a bag of snuff 
with him for the purpose of flinging in the eyes 
of those who should lay hold of him. 

March 22. — Ride up to London. Buy a carriage 



Chap. VII. NEWS PEOM EKANCE 219 

barouche of a man in Bond Street, for eighty-five 1815. 
guineas. "Write to Tavistock and to Byron. 
Resolve to go on Sunday next, if possible, to 
Ostend. 

I saw Cuthbert, who has left his wife at Paris, 
but talks as if it was certain that Napoleon would 
get to Paris. The bets here are that he arrives 
before twelve o'clock at night; not a shot has 
been fired against him. Drouot was led out to be 
shot at Lille, the bandage was over his eyes, but 
the soldiers, instead of firing, made him Governor 
of the fortress, and Mortier was sent to Paris. 

Whitbread tells a story that a letter from Lady 
Bessborough at Marseilles mentions that a friend 
of hers travelling to see her met a carriage and 
four carrying a General, escorted by four dragoons. 
The General stopped the lady and in the most 
polite manner begged her to change horses, his 
being very tired. He made a thousand apologies, 
said he would not employ anything but entreaty ; 
he was quite shocked, but perhaps it was more 
necessary that he should get on than that the lady 
should proceed with any great speed. When the 
horses were changed, the lady asked one of the 
dragoons who that was : " Qui ? . . . C'est VEm- 
pereur." It was Napoleon — he invades Prance 
with 1,100 men, and traverses it in a carriage 
almost without escort. 

The Times of to-day contains his proclamation 
and the account of his entering Grenoble and 
Lyons. He gave a ball at Lyons. He accuses 



220 LONDON Chap. VII. 

1815. Augereau and Marmont by name of the loss of 
Paris, and is violent against the emigrants. The 
Bourbons he does not declaim against much, but 
tells them to finish their reign in England, where 
they have passed nineteen years of it. He promises 
a general amnesty. He is at Auxerre, it is now 
said, but still some reports say that it is only a 
trap, and that he is to be crushed at Melun or 
imder the walls of Paris. 

It is reputed by Cavendish Bradshaw that 
King Louis is actually arrived at Calais, but 
Birch, M.P., says he is gone in an open carriage 
to fight it out at Melun. 

March 23. — Reports of the King being at Calais, 
others of his being in Belgium ; certainly he has 
fled from Paris, and according to all conjecture 
Napoleon must have entered Paris on Tuesday.^ 
The army at Melun gave up like every other corps 
and melted away before the Conqueror. The news 
of Napoleon's landing at Cannes arrived in London 
on Thursday, March 9 ; in thirteen days we learn 
he is in Paris ; in twenty days he traverses the 
whole extent of country, which would take a 
common traveller with ladies a longer time, wait- 
ing by the way three or four days to give balls, 
and reviews at Lyons. We do not know that a 
shot has been fired. 

' Louis XVIII. fled from Paris on the night of March 19, intend- 
ing to go direct to Lille, but, changing his mind, he went by Amiens 
to Abbeville. On the 21st another change of plan led him to Lille ; 
whence, after a day or two of further hesitation, he fled across th? 
frontier to Ghent. 



Chap. VII. UNCERTAINTY IN PARIS 221 

The two Lallemands and those that were cut isis. 
down in the Tuileries are the only heroes who 
have as yet lost their lives in this military 
revolution unparalleled in the history of the 
Avorld. 

England wears a melancholy air, all but Whit- 
bread, and little Knight and my friend Bickersteth 
are at the height of contention. All is to be done 
over again ; we have lived in vain for twenty-five 
years ; we are bankrupt as it were of power, and 
must recommence our struggle for life. I foresee 
everything bad, and yet Castlereagh spoke for four 
hours as to his conduct at Congress, and made a 
speech, by common consent the weakest and most 
watery ever heard in Parliament. The first hour 
was all boast and profession, and saying what he 
would say. Of Poland, he said the Poles were 
to be left their language. Good God ! What 
times ! 

Dined with Kinnaird, and met there Mr. Cuth- 
bert, Mr. Empson, and Mr. Wrightson. Mr. 
Cuthbert left Paris on the 18th. He told us that 
for the first five days after the news arrived of 
Napoleon's landing, even those attached to him said 
he would be shot like a mad dog, and lamented 
such a man would meet with such — nay, it was 
reported he had been torn to pieces by the 
peasantry. The moment the news arrived of 
Grenoble being taken all was given over, and by 
the friends of the Court first. The Duke de 
Duras, second gentilhomme de la chambre, said to 



222 LONDON Chap. VII. 

1815. Cuthbert : " Mbn ami, tout est perdu." It is 
certainly true that the telegraph was falsified, for 
when the Princes were at Lyons the news from 
Paris was that it was in the hands of Buonaparte, 
and the Duke of Orleans was obliged to return to 
the capital solely for news. Such was the neglect 
of administration that the maison du roi, all com- 
posed of servants attached to the King, had not 
received even pistols when the news of Napoleon's 
landing arrived. Also were found unopened upon 
the Abbe de Montesquiou, Minister of the Interior's 
table two letters from Monsieur de Brettenville, 
prefect of Var, dated six weeks previously to the 
landing of the ex-Emperor, and giving an ac- 
count of the intended attempt, yet the Abb6 was 
given to the King by Talleyrand. It appears, said 
Cuthbert, that nothing was more unlucky or ill- 
contrived than the giving permission to Talleyrand 
to proceed to Vienna. Had he been in Paris the 
conspiracy of Napoleon must have been detected 
and have failed. Cuthbert told us that at Paris 
no tumult had taken place ; he did not believe men 
had been killed, though one had been run through 
with a sword. 

An old woman was stirring up chestnuts and 
cried : " Vive le Moi," a man near her said, " Vive 
VEmpereur." She basted him with the ladle. This 
was the only blow struck. 

At Paris the following story was current. 
Napoleon advanced to Grenoble ; the troops were 
going to fire upon him; he stepped forward and 



Chap. VII. NAPOLEON AND THE FRENCH ARMY 223 

laid hold of a grenadier by the moustache, " Et toi, isis. 
vieille moustache, je me souviens de toi, tu a MS 
avec nous a Austerlitz." The soldiers threw down 
their arms and exclaimed, " Vive VI]mpereu7\" 

It is said, I see by the paper, that he waited 
at a post-house to give an English lady the 
preference of horses. This, I see, is Whitbread's 
story. 

The first intelligence Outhbert received of 
the landing of Napoleon was through the secretary 
of the Eiussian Embassy, who, dining with him, 
retired early on account of the news. What 
news ? Why, you know Napoleon is landed. 

Sir Thomas Stepney told me the following 

Saturday, that the Due de , attached to the 

Court, told him that the landing of Napoleon 
was just the thing that they wished, now they 
had him. 

March 24. — There appears in the Morning Post 
an account of the defection of the grand army 
at Melun which, being drawn up to oppose him, 
was conquered by his coming down in an open 
barouche bareheaded between Drouot and Ber- 
trand, and crying out to them : "I am your 
Emperor," an exclamation immediately followed 
by the general dissolution of the army and flight 
of all of them to their Emperor. It appears 
Napoleon entered Paris on the evening of the 
20th, between eight and nine, it is said, with 
only sixty troops, their arms reversed. 

It is singular that none of the papers of this 



224 LONDON Chap. VII. 

1815. day state on what day it was that the Emperor 
entered Paris. Some say Monday and some say 
Tuesday — a proof of the chance history has of 
being correct. 

However, the fact is that he entered on Monday 
last between eight and nine, a part of his army 
being detached, 800 or 900 before him, who prepared 
the way, and that he entered followed by the 
army which had been sent out to oppose him, 
but in three carriages-and-four. The 20th is 
the anniversary of the birth of his son. 

I rode down to Whitton and dined. 

March 25.-^1 ride up to London, taking leave 
of Whitton and its inhabitants. 

I find no letter from Byron, and thereupon am 
filled with chagrin. I walk about with Oullen 
and young Wilmot, Byron's cousin, who details 
to me a conversation which Pazakerley had with 
Napoleon. It is contained in a letter which has 
been shown in England. He (Napoleon) told 
Fazakerley to ask him questions, and the conversa- 
tion was kept up for three hours. 

I dined with S. B. Davies, Lord Sidmouth, 
and Norton at the Cocoa-Tree. Afterwards Sir 
T. Stepney and Kinnaird came in. I went to 
bed out of spirits from indeterminate, but chiefly 
low apprehensions about Byron. 

March 26. — Last night the report was strong 
that the King of Erance was taken at Lille ; 
to-day it appears he has gone to Tournay. Kin- 
naird came to the Cocoa-Tree and read to me in 



ch^-. vn. stapoleon's MXNrsTET 225 

bed a lette:^ from Lord and a letter from Lady I8i5 
Kinnaird, now at Paris, dated 22nd. Louis left 
Paris one o'clock on the morning of Monday 20tli. 
Napoleon entered between seven and nine the 
same evening. Lord Kinnaird says it is not a 
revolution, solely military. 

Carnot is appointed a Count and Minister of 
the Interior — this secures all the republicans j 
Maret,^ Minister for Poreign Affairs, Pouchy of 
Police. His decree of the 13th, dated Lyons, has 
all the assumption of royalty. He confiscates the 
Bourbon property ; appoints a time for the 
coronation of the Empress and King of Rome ; 
annuls the orders St. Louis, St. Esprit, and 
St. Michael ; dissolves the Chamber of Deputies 
and Peers, and defers the new constitution until 
May, when the Electoral Colleges are to settle 
it. All the emigrants returning since January 
1814, are dismissed and given fourteen days to 
retire. Moniteurs of the 22nd are arrived in 
town, but the ports of Prance are said to be all 
shut in the Channel and in the possession of 
the tricoloured cockade. 

A letter I received from Lord Sidmouth last 
night tells me facilities are not thought proper to 
be granted to travellers wishing to visit Prance at 
this period, under the present circumstances, but 
that Hamilton will forward my wishes if I go 
by any other route. 

' Caulaincourt, Due de Vicence, was appointed Minister of Foreign 
Affairs. 

vol.. I 29 



226 LONDON Ckap. Vll. 

181S. I am still undecided what to do. I passed the 
morning talking revolutionary with Cullen, and 
in a foolish state of apprehension with respect 
to Byron, my friend Byron, whose silence annoys 
me beyond what I can express. I wish I had done 
something besides good, having nothing but right 
on my side, I cannot help looking on myself as 
a wretched individual whom it is not worth while 
to conciliate on the most advantageous terms. By 
the God that made me, I cannot guess at the 
grounds of this behaviour. He must be mad ! He 
tells me in a letter that nothing short of insanity 
can make him alter his opinion of me. Well, 
even if we quarrel some good will arise : he is 
my friend, and I shall have the opportunity of 
showing the virtue of forbearance. 

March 27. — In the morning papers appears the 
Moniteur of the 22nd, which begins with stating 
the departure of the King, and afterwards registers 
the decrees and records the extraordinary pro- 
gress of that Conqueror, which is more like 
the voyage of a hero in romance. Ney went 
over to him at Lons-le-Saunier. It is said Louis 
XVIII. is at Tournay with Berthier, Marmont, 
and Macdonald ; and a Colonel Ross from Calais 
says it is reported Napoleon was at Lille yester- 
day, and will be at Dunkirk to-day. The 
revolution has been brought about, as Napoleon 
says, without spilling a drop of blood. 

I wrote several letters to Lady Jersey, Lord 
Lansdowne, Sir E. Wilson, Brougham, etc. 



Chap. VII. DEPARTURE FOR PARIS 227 

Walked about with Perry; doubts entertained i8i5. 
respecting war and peace. 

Called on Bickerstetb. He told me the soldiers, 
reckoning their rank and file in France, used to 
sa^y? " Quinze, seize, dix-sept, gros cochon, dix- 
neuf." Dined with Seton. Heard from Byron: 
all my suspicions groundless. 

March 28. — In the Brussels papers appears the 
declaration of Congress against Napoleon, dajted 
Vienna, March 13, putting him out of the pale 
of society. The same day brings accounts of 
Louis having fled to Ostend accompanied by Mr. 
de Blacas, P^re Elisee, and two priests, Napoleon 
being at Lille ! 

I call at the Foreign Office, see Lord Sidmouth, 
who talks of acting with energy, whence I foresee 
war. He said we began better than the last war, 
though not with the iron-bound frontier. 

Called on my father ; took leave of him ; find 
he had written to Kinnaird concerning me. 

March 29. — Determined to go to-day, hearing 
Lord B. is arrived. Left London in my new 
barouchet ; slept at Sittingbourne. 

March 30. — Arrived at Dover. Pound the 
packet had sailed yesterday. I was introduced 
to General Scott, who has been in Prance for 
twelve years. He told me that the debts of 
Prance to the English, of which Napoleon had 
voluntarily paid a third, and which, under 
Louis XVIII., were to have been liquidated by 
cppinftipsioners appointed by England and Prance^ 



228 DOVER Chap. VJI. 

1815. had never been settled. So much for the justice, 
of Louis. 

I thought of going to Erance; but all here, 
except Dalrymple, advise me not. The packets 
have ceased sailing there. A Prench boat would 
have taken me, but asked me twenty-five louis, 
which decided me against it. 

Napoleon's governor is come to Calais, and the 
tricolour was hoisted last night. The Duke of 
Padua Arighi, Napoleon's uncle, told Dalrymple 
there was not the least danger for the English, 
nor, as yet, any apprehension of war. . . . 

After all, the packet sailed to Ostend to-night, 
but too late for me to get my carriage on board. 
The emigrants who are returning look as dirty, 
but are as merry as ever, and make as much 
noise. 

March 31. — General Scott told me a story of 
Louis's injustice, which touched him, for he had 
lost a hundred a year by it. He thinks it crime 
enough to justify his loss of Empire. He says 
the Parisian shopkeepers are for him, i.e. for 
peace, and that they received the Count D'Artois 
after his flight from Lyons better than when he 
(Game in with the King to Paris. 

Dalrymple said they would have torn the Due 
de Berri to pieces had they caught him. Amongst 
other things, he tore off a Colonel's epaulettes on 
parade. Napoleon himself could not do this. He 
once told an officer he was afraid^ and the man 
put his hand to his sword. 



Chap. VII. OSTBND 229 

April 1. — Preparing to go on board the Duke isis. 
of Wellington to Ostend. Wrote to Kinnaird, 
to Byron, and Sir Benjamin. Before I left 
London on Wednesday I saw the second of these 
and his wife. He advises me " not to marry," 
though he has the best of wives. 

Set sail a little after 4 p.m., taking leave of 
General Scott on the wooden pier. The General 
told me his wife wrote to him that the only change 
she observed on the entry of Napoleon was that 
the newspapers and the pats of butter had no 
longer the lilies printed on them ! 

April 2. — Got up after nine, and found we were 
at anchor a mile from the harbour of Ostend, 
the tide being out, and the sandbank, which is 
daily encroaching, preventing us from coming in. 
However, we went in boats, I having no difficulty 
as to passports or Custom House. The harbour 
was full of English transports, and they were 
landing some horses of the 11th Dragoons. The 
town appeared in military occupation, swarming 
with red coats. 

Put up at the Imperial Hotel, where I got a 
decent room. Walked about the town, and nearly 
round the fortifications, at which were two or three 
parties of our soldiers, and 54th and 44th regiments 
at work. There are several broad ditches flooded 
by the tide, and the works are extensive. It is 
said to be liable to a coup de main. Ostend 
stands on the top of a flat tongue of land, with 
,a lon^ narrow creek of a port. In walking round 



230 OSTEND Chap. VH. 

1815. it in my tagged blue greatcoat, the English 
sentries took me for an officer, and asked me 
no questions, but I was stopped by the first soldier 
of the German legion, who made me walk down 
from the parapet. This may show the exactness 
of German discipline. Nothing is left to individual 
conjecture. 

The women of Ostend of the middle classes are 
dressed in black-hooded long single cloaks, which 
gives them the air of religion. They are fresh- 
complexioned and lively-eyed, but blunt-featured, 
and do not carry themselves well. The men look 
much like Englishmen, and the lower classes 
dress much the same. Every person who has any 
connection with the posts, or the inns, or the 
police, and every better sort of man and woman, 
speaks Erench. The streets have Erench names. 

In the place d'armes I saw the Eorty-fourth 
march off, with the Colonel Commandant and the 
civil authorities dressed in black, some boots, some 
silk stockings, and all great cocked hats with orange 
cockade, and small Court swords by their sides. . . . 

Louis XVIII., or, as the Erench now call him, 
the Count de Lille, left this place on Thursday 
morning. He owned the Belgians were more for 
the Erench than the Dutch. 

Lord Waterford's carriages were putting on 
board a packet as mine were landing, when, whom 
should I see but Dicky Prime, and Lord Sligo, 
and a Mr. Coffin, who is reported drowned, and 
has had horses, spld. at. Tattersall's therefore, by 



Chap. VII. LOED SLIGO'S STORIES 231 

his relations. They left Naples only three weeks isis. 
ago — came through Switzerland ; report great 
things of the armaments of the allies, and will 
have it the Emperor Napoleon must fall. I bet 
Prime twenty-five guineas he does not succumb. 
The King of Naples stands out for the best bidder, 

Caroline, the Queen of Naples, asked Lord 
Sligo whether it was true the English had assisted 
the Emperor Napoleon in making his escape. Lord 
Sligo was a week in Elba, and could not obtain an 
interview with the Emperor, but he lived much 
with General and Madame Bertrand, and at that 
time evidently saw and said that some scheme 
was in preparation. Madame Bertrand said that 
avec de V argent il pourroit Men f aire quelque chose. 

The Italian ladies are scandalised at our female 
manners, which they think too free in public. 
Lady Oxford walks about Naples with Byron's 
picture in her girdle in front. She comes in 
half an hour too late for the dinner of the King 
and Queen, puts her hand over the Queen's 
shoulder to shake hands, and gives her excuse 
that she had been attending the sick Lord Oxford, 
so loud, that all the company are grave and silent. 

Lord Sligo is a great man at the Neapolitan 
Court. The King gave him his picture, so Prime 
warned me I must never call him Murat before 
Sligo. . . . 

April 3. — I got my passports for Courtray 
and Tournay, expecting, according to information 
received from an officer of the regiment, to find 



232 COURTRAT— TOTJB.NAT Chap. VII. 

1815. the 69th, and my brother in one or the other. 
We went slowly to Turnhout, then discovered the 
swaying of the pole had broken the axle pole. 
A marechal mended it clumsily, and grinned at 
my giving him what he asked, five francs, as did 
those about him. I arrived at Courtray by seven. 
Whilst I was drinking tea, the commissary of 
police, with an orange bow round his arm and a 
sword by his side, a civil man, came in and asked 
for my pass, which I showed him. 

April 4. — Set off for Tournay. "We were 
stopped by the advanced post a mile from Tour- 
nay. An officer of the German legion asked for 
my passports, and told me the 69th were parad- 
ing to go off. An officer kindly offered to show 
me where Captain Hobhouse lived. He was ill, 
and did not expect to march in the regiment. 
I went to his billet, and found him gone to the 
Colonel, where the same officer showed me to, 
and there I found this amiable and gallant (not 
in the vulgar meaning) officer and brother of 
mine, who immediately got leave to stay one 
day behind with me, as accordingly he did. 

We walked about Tournay, and he took me to 
the heights where they are repairing the mould 
works of the citadel, amiserable defence, just enough 
to prevent a coup de main, which is all to be said 
of the other preparations of this old fortification, 
which was blown up by the treaty of 1748.^ 

' Tournay was restored to Austria by the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, 
in 1748, but the fortress was not dismantled till 1781. 



Chap. VII. MEETING WITH CAPTAIN HOBHOTTSE 233 

The peasants and soldiers were working in great 1815. 
numbers. . . . From the citadel my brother 
shoM^ed me the site of the battle of Eontenoy, 
the wood and the windmill where the English 
Guards were stationed. 

I observed, or rather my brother made me 
observe, that Erench is the language of this town 
and neighbourhood, which is so Erench that the 
Belgian troops are sent up into Holland at pre- 
sent. Two or three battalions of German legions 
are in the town. When the news came of 
Napoleon's advance they half cried, " Vwe 
V Umpereur." My brother was at Menin when 
the Erench King, Louis, came from Lille. His 
regiment was there, but Colonel Morris, after 
consulting Ben, and being in great consternation, 
did not think fit to allow that portion of the 
cuirassiers, about two hundred, who came from 
Lille with the King, to pass the barrier. At 
this place the soldiery cuirassiers took leave of 
Louis, kissing his hand. An ofS^cer had advanced 
on full gallop to Menin to tell Colonel Morris that 
the King was coming immediately. Luckily the 
regiment was just ready for parade. The King 
was not allowed to bring any troops past the 
barrier, and he was told he should command an 
English garrison ; but when Louis came into the 
town the regiment was drawn up, dropped its 
colours, played the proper points of war, and gave 
" Vive le Roi" as a reception to the monarch just 
departed from his own dominions at half a mile 

VOL. I 30 



234 TOURNAT Chap. VII. 

1815. distance. There were no post-horses ready, so 
that Louis was obliged to wait for some time in his 
carriage at the door. My brother, as the best 
Frenchman, was deputed to ask Louis whether 
he would like a guard of honour, and he said, 
yes, he should be obliged for some dragoons, as 
also for a despatch to be sent on to order thirty 
horses at the next post. The officer said he was 
crying; my brother said he could not see it. 

The cuirassiers wished to follow him in, but 
only one drunken dragoon with a lame horse at 
last pushed through, against my brother's in- 
junction, and toppled into Menin, crying, " Vive 
le S,oi." What an exit from his dominions, more 
sneaking than the entrance of him who had driven 
him out of them. The whole four thousand of the 
Maison du Moi insisted upon following Louis, 
but were sent to their homes by the Due de Berri, 
except about two hundred, with a Major-General 
at their head, who after great difficulties have 
been allowed to pass into Dutch Planders. The 
pretension of fighting on the part of the allies 
is the inclination of France to Louis, and yet 
they will not allow 4,000 men, because they are 
Frenchmen, to be enrolled in their force ! 

My brother was also employed to announce to 
a General Recard, who came with the King in the 
crowd without a passport, that he must have a 
guard of honour to conduct him to Courtray, to 
General Vandeleur, to whom, by the way, Morris 
had sent my brother on, full gallop, to know what 



Chap. VII. ESCAPE OF LOUIS XVIII. 235 

he should do with Louis XVIII. The Due de 1815. 
Berri told Colonel Morris that Mortier had positive 
orders to arrest Louis at Lille, but sent to him to 
get away. The young men of the Bourgeoisie had 
positively sent a detachment to march to help the 
royal cause, they were congSdies also by the Comte 
D'Artois. The Due de Berri told Colonel Morris 
that if they could have got fifty men to fire, they 
had been saved, but the moment Napoleon appeared 
the soldiers rushed to him. The Due added in 
the presence of Captain Barlow, who breakfasted 
with him and Morris and an aide-de-camp at 
Menin, that if they could have held Paris two days 
longer, the Boyal cause would have been saved 
by the Northern volunteers, who are marching 
from Lille. 

The Count D'Arcy told my brother that Madame 
Montmorency told him that the whole conspiracy 
was organised by a Senate, Cambacerfes, Pouche, 
etc., who used to meet at Eugene Beauharnais's 
sister's, and that these meetings were known. 
Also " Monsieur " mentioned the story of the 
Abbe de Montesquieu not opening the letters 
sent by the prefect of Var, de Bouthillier,^ relative 
to the landing of Napoleon. . . . 

' The Count du Bouthillier sent the news to Mass6na at Marseilles, 
and heat once transmitted, them to Paris. The semaphore telegraph 
then only went as far as Lyons, and the tidings were forwarded 
thence by messenger to Paris. The dispatch was handed to VitroUes, 
who received it on March 5, and gave it to the King, and he opened 
it at once and read it several times. In the ordinary course it should 
have been delivered to Soult ; but the matter was so urgent that it 
was referred at once to Louis. — See Houssaye's " 1815." 



236 TOURNAT — ATH Chap. VII. 

1815. Prime told me Napoleon said Douglas was the 
pleasantest Englishman he had seen, not Eazar- 
kerley, as we heard in England. 

Here everything looks warlike. My brother 
thinks my plan of going to Paris not feasible. 
He looks very unwell, and has been so for months, 
of a sort of rheumatism in his side. He would 
not tell us at home of it. He showed me the 
grape-shot through and through his cap which he 
got at Berghen-op-Zoom. He has fought a duel 
since his being in the 69th, with a man who was 
killed at Berghen. He fired twice ; his antagonist's 
pistol missed the first time in the fire. My 
brother did not know this at the time, but when 
he did, he wished to give him another chance, and 
when the seconds said No, he, in order to give 
him one, fired again, his pistol being in both cases 
averted from his adversary. At Berghen this man 
was under sentence of Court-martial, but asked 
leave to be allowed to go into action. Morris 
told him he could not give him leave, he must 
take it. He did, and was killed. 

My brother tells me Skerrett, who was killed at 
Berghen-op-Zoom, said to him an hour or so before 
he died, " Well, I think Graham has done for his 
troops at last." 

I am in doubt just now whether to go to 
Brussels or Paris, or Geneva direct. 

April 5. — Left Tournay for Leuz and Ath. We 
went close to the plain and wood of Eontenoy on 
our right, which is a preserve of one Count 



Chap. VII. THE DTJKB's MOVEMENTS 237 

eh In this country there are game laws, 1815. 

and the game is let out and the partridges are in 
considerahle quantities. 

The country between Tournay and Ath is more 
open than up to the first town on my route, but 
equally well cultivated and no less populous. 
Prom Leuz to Ath we met a strong detachment 
of the green 95th on the road, going into country 
quarters. 

The Erench papers speak pacifically, and 
announce that English have landed lately at 
Dieppe. We met Major-General Adams and an 
aide-de-camp on the road. Adams commands the 
light brigade. 
We entered Ath. 

The Duke of Wellington arrived at Brussels at 
five this morning. 

April 6. — Arrived at Enghien. We walked to 
a neighbouring meadow, in which the grenadiers 
of a battalion of the guards stationed at Enghien 
were playing at football. My brother observed 
that soldiers of the line never amused themselves 
in this way. 

Arrived at Brussels, which is as full as it can 
hold of strangers, so that at the H6tels de Elandre 
and Bellevue there is no chance of accommodation. 
We dined with a friend of my brother's, an odd 
dog, and his crony an odder. The room seemed 
peopled with English parties. 

April 7. — The Duke of Wellington talks of being 
in Paris, say they, in three months, and is to have 



238 BKTJSSELS Chap. VH. 

1815. 10,000 cavalry from England. His Grace is at 
Ghent, with Louis the Desired ; but the troops, 
English and Hanoverian, altogether amount only 
to 22,000, and the former chiefly second battalions. 

When Lord Hill came out he found the Prince 
of Orange as obstinate as a pig, and his little head 
quite overturned by his appointment as General, 
which gave him command even over his Lordship. 
He could do nothing with his rank, and was glad 
when the Duke of Wellington came to settle all 
his boyish pretensions. 

This child sent the other day for young Charles 
Somerset, eldest son of Lord C. of that ilk, and 
said, " So, sir, I understand you said the other 
day Napoleon is a great man." " Yes, your E,oyal 
Highness, I did so, because I thought so, and think 
so still." "Well, sir, if you do it again I shall 
put you under arrest." 

He also heard the youths in the guards' mess 
were in the habit of giving " Vive Napoleon," and 
sent to say they might say " Vive la guerre," but 
not " Vive NapoUon." 

He ventured to take Sir A. Gordon, brother 
of Lord Aberdeen, and aide de camp for Lord 
Wellington, to ta,sk for telling bad news, when 
he had such a retort as silenced him at once. " I'd 
have your Royal Highness to know that I am 
perfectly aware of when to speak and when to hold 
my tongue, and that I think it is more serviceable 
to our good cause to tell the truth than to conceal 
and falsify facts, however unfavourable to us." 



Chap. VII. ANIECDOTE OP THE DTJKB 239 

April 8. — My brother Benjamin bought a horse 1815. 
for fifteen napoleons, and at one o'clock mounted 
him and parted from me under the arch of the 
H6tel d'Angleterre. God speed him ! as gallant 
and honourable a man as any living. He has 
lately read a good deal, and his conversation is 
bookish. No man is less of an egotist even in 
thought. He has a modest decision in his manner 
and character, as well as an easy, unassuming 
familiarity with his friends and acquaintances, 
which I envy him much. Although sensible of 
the advantages of pushing himself in his pro- 
fession, he cannot bring himself to make a request 
to a soul, and this day I heard him mention 
to Colonel Barclay that Major Moorley was look- 
ing out for a staff situation, without hinting a 
word of his own desire. Every one asks him if 
he is and supposes him to be on the staff. Hillier 
asked Hill direct to be employed. 

After we parted I went to my lodgings and wrote 
thrice over a letter to Lord Fitzroy Somerset on 
his behalf, and to Major-G-eneral Sir Hudson 
Lowe, Quartermaster- General here. I pray they 
may be of some avail, but I doubt. 

Young Hillier told me last night that when the 
Duke -of Wellington heard of the loss of young 
Pakenham in the Saldanha he said, " I don't know 
how it is, but I don't feel as I used to do at these 
things. Some years ago such a sad thing would 
have made me cry, but now I have no such incli- 
nation." This seems to me natural and noble. 



240 BRUSSELS Chap. VII. 

1815. A little mind would not permit a man to make 
such an observation. I should like to know what 
he said on learning that Pakenliam the General 
was killed at New Orleans, which he first saw 
in the papers after hearing that he had suc- 
ceeded. 

April 9. — Colonel Jones, commandant of Brus- 
sels, gave me a letter to General Dornberg at 
Mons and vis6d ray passport to go through Prance 
to Geneva, then coming back saw Fitzroy Somer- 
set, who promised to do what he could for my 
brother, and talked of sending a letter by me to 
tlie Due de Vicence, relative to the Duke of 
Wellington's baggage, now at Paris. 

Walked to the Palace of Laeken. Lord Hill, 
Mackworth, and stafp were looking about them, 
and I went in with them into the palace, also 
on a small scale, but neatly furnished by the 
Emperor Napoleon, who gallantly had given the 
best rooms to the Empress. Wisely, the Prince 
of Orange has changed nothing of the disposition 
of the furniture. 

A gentleman who left Paris last Tuesday told 
me he had no difficulties. I determine to go. 

April 10.— In the morning I called at Lord 
Eitzroy Somerset's. He told me he was just 
going to the Duke and had nothing for me, but I 
could come and sec him. Erom this I foolishly 
excused myself, and took leave of him. He had 
told the Duke of Wellington of my intention. 
His Grace at once said, " By George ! he had 



CSAi". VII. ON THE ROAD TO PAMS 24)1 

better not go " ; and desired Lord Fitzroy to tell 1815. 
me this. 

Finally, in spite of all advice, set off at half- 
past one from Brussels to Mons, first of all hoping 
there may be peace ; secondly, that if there is 
no peace, there will be no war yet, and thirdly, 
that the Emperor Napoleon will not detain honour- 
able individuals. I went to Halle, to Soignies, 
and to Mons. At Mons I called on the Command- 
ant, got my pass vis^d, and then on General 
Dornberg, who likewise vis6d it, and said I should 
meet with no difl&culties. 

April 11. — Began my forbidden expedition into 
France. Went to Boissy. Passed the Belgic 
Douane and the picquets and vedettes, two 
dragoons patrolling on the road, and got invisibly 
into France. 

At Cond6, the first French town, I first saw the 
tricoloured cockade and a soldier or two. An 
Imperial flag was hanging from the church. My 
trunks, etc., were examined at the Custom House. 

Went on to Valenciennes, and coming upon the 
town saw several French regiments drilling in a 
meadow. The Douane stopped me at the gate, 
and, untrussing me, discovered Lady Jersey's 
parcel to the Marquise Coigny, opening which, and 
finding it to be percale (cambric), they said I must 
be searched and detained at the Custom House in 
the town, and accordingly keeping me until the 
regiments had marched in before me, they sent 
me through the gates with a soldier. At the gate I 

VOL. I 31 



^4^ VALENClElfNES tJHAf. Vtt. 

1815. showed my passport again, and was then ordered 
to the town Major accompanied by a soldier, 
bayonet fixed, who, however, in the course of our 
progress took off his oilensive weapon. 

We got into the market-place, which was 
crammed with troops just dismissed. The tri- 
coloured flag was flying from many windows ; the 
air of everything was martial, as far as re- 
spected ourselves, a little threatening. However, 
the town Major was civil and kind, and blamed 
the ferocity of the Douane. 

Book. — He asked me what could induce me to 
come to Prance when all my fellow-countrymen 
were running away from it as fast as they could 
procure the necessary passports. I had letters of 
recommendation to Denon, to Talma, and to one 
or two other distinguished men, on seeing which 
the General said, " The gentleman is, apparently, 
a savant ? " I assured him that I was as little 
of a savant as a smuggler. " Why, then," again 
asked the ofl3.cer, " do you go tp Paris just now ? " 
" Solely to see your Emperor," I replied. " Allez 
done quand vous voudrez ; " and, saying this, he 
ordered my passport to be vis6d for Paris. 

DiAET. — When I came back I moved slowly 
to the Custom House, guarded by men unarmed. 
There everything was searched. The chief man 
was civil, but Madame Coigny's percale was seized. 

At the post-house an officer talked English. 



Chap. VII. COMPIBGNE 243 

He asked about peace or war. He said they liad 1815. 
been sent in a burry to Valenciennes, but that the 
Emperor's horses were come, as, indeed, they were 
to all points on the frontiers. 

We went on to Oambray. The postmaster said 
he was happy to see me going towards Paris, ^e 
prayed for peace ; the ojficer at Valenciennes did 
the same. 

We reached St. Quentin at half-past seven. 
The commissary of police was a draper, and not at 
home. I could not get my pass vis^d. I talked 
with the commissary's son and another, and was 
astonished at the freedom of speech. Heard a 
man who keeps livery stables in Paris talk still 
more freely. He said he would have put a stop 
to Napoleon's progress with 500 Marseillois before 
he got to Grenoble. He declaimed against his 
having banished the maison du roi to thirty 
leagues from Paris. Of this I heard a great deal 
afterwards, and of its unpopularity, done by the 
Emperor in contradiction of all his Ministers and 
promises ; 6,000 are concerned in it, say they ; 
say half, and it is too much. The King is called 
a brave Jiomme ; his family, except the Duke of 
Orleans, lost him his throne. I see no tricoloured 
bunting in this part. 

April 12. — Travelled by Ham, Noyon, etc., to 
Compifegne. Visited the chateau . . . lately re- 
furnished by the Emperor Napoleon, and that 
in a princely, royal, imperial style ; indeed, far 
surpassing anything I ever saw. The back 



244 PARIS Chap. VII. 

1815. fa9ade of the palace looks upon tlie woods of the 
great chase. Eleurs de lys had been placed in 
some spots where N.'s had stood and will stand. 
In one apartment was his bust crowned with 
laurel of gold. 

I looked at his library, entirely historical. The 
ball-room of golden pillars will be the most 
magnificent thing in the world. The Bourbon 
princes have lately been living there. The 
concierge told me Napoleon used to play 
billiards sometimes with his wife, Marie. The 
baths of the Empress are most voluptuous, and 
furnished round with mirrors. 

We met a few diligences, but hardly any 
travellers, even as we approached Paris. At half- 
past seven we got into Paris in the rain. The 
efPect of the lamps in the middle of the street 
is certainly fine, and I think going down the 
boulevards in the evening superior to anything we 
have in London. 

We pottered about the Rue St. Honore, looking 
for an hotel called the Prince Regent's Hotel, and 
at last put up at a villainous little tavern, 
attracted by " Great Britain Hotel " written up in 
large characters. Inquired if English were going 
from Paris ; on the contrary they were arriving, 
said the commissary of police to the landlady. 

April 13. — Heard peace is expected, chiefly 
from the message of the Prince Regent to Parlia- 
ment, and the debates there in the papers of 
the 7th. 



Chap. VII. DECLABATION OF THE ALLIES 245 

Walking along, saw all sorts of ridiculous 1815. 
caricatures against the Bourbons, and the tri- 
coloured flag floating on the column in the Place 
Venddme ; this is the only change. In the Journal 
de JParis I read, The liberty of the press permits us, 
etc., which assures me there is none. The Duke 
of Angouleme has been arrested by the National 
Guards in the south. Napoleon has ordered that 
he shall be embarked at Cette, reserving only his 
moneys, until the crown jewels, fourteen millions, 
are restored by Louis. 

Napoleon observes that the declaration of the 
allies from Vienna would justify his retaliation on 
the Bourbon family, but that he proceeds in other 
steps. 

In this day's Mbniteur is a translation of the 
declaration and minutes of a deliberation upon it 
by the Council of State, signed, St. Jean D'Angely, 
etc., and countersigned Maret. They affect to 
say the whole is a forgery of Talleyrand's ; but 
Madame de Souza, Monsieur de Elahaut's mother 
(aide-de-camp to the Emperor), owned to me that 
was only to put the attack in a polite shape. Yet 
a Monsieur Barray, a great friend of Fouche, 
either did not know, or pretended not to know, 
that the forgery was supposed not believed. 

I called on Lady Kinnaird ^ ; her lord is gone. 
She told me some amusing anecdotes. 

She owned the extreme folly of the Bourbons, 

' Lady Olivia Letitia Catherine Fitzgerald, seventli daughter of 
William Kobert, second Duke of Leinster, Married May 8, 1806, 



246 PARIS Chap. VII. 

1815. and their exclusive attention to the emigrant class 
— their neglect of the military. She was at Court 
on the Thursday that the news of Napoleon's 
arrival at Lyons was known, and after Marshal 
Ney had got seven millions from the King, and 
had promised to bring Napoleon alive to Paris. 
They were joking about his iron cage, and agreed 
to put him in the Jardm des plantes. 

The moment Ney's troops went over all was 
over. Ney went over before them. He is cut for 
his unnecessary treachery. The King and royal 
family were kept in perfect ignorance of 
Napoleon's approach. At night on Tuesday, 
March 19, Louis was called up out of bed and 
told that Napoleon was at Pontainebleau. He 
would not believe it, and when he did, could 
not be persuaded to stir. He talked of waiting 
in the Tuileries or of going to light at Melun. 
He did neither ; the National Guards lifted him 
into his carriage at two in the morning. The 
foreign Ministers knew nothing of his departure 
until seven in the morning, when by some 
accident they received another note, also inviting 
them to a Court on the following Tuesday. All 
the foreign Ministers waited quietly but Somerset, 
who was thrown into a fidget and fright, and 
kept his room three days. He wrote to Caulain- 
court to ask passports to join the King. This 
King not being acknowledged, no answer was 
sent. Lord Kinnaird told Lord Fitzroy Somerset 
this was not the way ; he must ask to go home. 



«3ftA*. VIL liADY KIKNAIUd's EXPERIENCES 24? 

He did, and got passes immediately. The other 1815. 
-Ministers had done the same before. 

Lady Kinnaird was in the boulevards the 
day Napoleon entered. Several carriages came 
in, but no Emperor ; then came his regiments 
crying, " Vive V Empereur " — not a word from 
any one. They tried " Vive Buonaparte " ; still 
silence. Then Lady Kinnaird says the dragoons 
galloped into the people, and, holding out their 
pistols, cried, " Done vive V Empereur " ; yet not a 
word was said. The shops and windows were 
shut; not a genteel person showed herself — none 
but the has people ; no waving of handkerchiefs. 
However, when the Emperor on horseback, with 
three attendants, came to the Tuileries it is 
positively true he was carried on officers' shoulders 
into the palace, and that those who carried him 
were not on their legs. 

Lady Kinnaird was at the review on last 
Sunday, and stood close to the Emperor. She 
heard him say, when he was looking at the noble 
old guard, to Bertrand, " Et Us ne voudraient pas 
se servir de tels gens ; quelles bites T' He kissed 
the eagles, and seemed in great spirits. There 
was great enthusiasm. Lady Kinnaird says that 
before his coming the shopkeepers were very 
insolent to English. She told me that the 
Duchesse d'Angouleme talking to the officers at 
Bordeaux the other day who were preferring 
their services : " Flus de vos belles paroles, 
messieurs, je veux du sang" She spoilt the 



248 PARIS Chap. VII. 

1815. cause. The Due d'Angouleme was going on well 
in the south, when the Duchesse's letter to Spain 
for Spanish troops was discovered and broke up 
all the Bourbon army. It was said the Lyonese 
were in arms for him. On the contrary, when 
they heard of his approach they tore up the flag- 
stones to oppose him. The Duchess at Court 
used to cut all the new noblesse : Madame 
Moret and others. 

Whilst we were talking in came a Mr. Barry, 
an oldish man, who talked vehemently in favour 
of Napoleon and against the Bourbons. He said 
the French people were determined to be free, 
and that nothing could prevent constitutional 
liberty but a foreign invasion, which would throw 
people, soldiery, and all into the hands of 
Napoleon. 

It is true that the Duke of Orleans was offered 
the crown six months ago, and refused it. He 
was the object of the most decided jealousy to 
the King and royal family. When the King 
Louis XVI. was buried again at St. Denis, the 
preacher made a sermon against him personally. 
If Napoleon had not come there would have 
been a revolution in six months. 

Lord Kinnaird, after manty attempts to see 
Oastlereagh when he passed through Paris, did at 
last — through Lady Castlereagh's prayers — secure 
a moment's hearing ; and when he heard how 
things were going on in Prance, gave him 
(Kinnaird) one of his damned smiles and said, 



Chap. VII. NAPOLEON 'S DISPOSITIONS 249 

" Oh no ; everything was as it should be." 1815. 
Thus are Empires lost. 

The military were ill-treated everywhere. The 
brother of Labedoy^re, who first went over to 
Napoleon, had his regiment taken away under 
pretence of giving another, which was never 
given. 

De Plahaut, whose father was guillotined for 
serving Louis XVI., was cut at Court because 
he had been aide-de-camp to the Emperor. He 
and his family would have been content if a 
kind word had been said to him. The Emperor 
has made him his aide-de-camp again. Madame 
de Souza, bis mother, confirmed this to me. 

Talleyrand also sunk the army from 240,000 
to 85,000, pocketing the pay of the rest, but, 
said Madame Souza to me, " though the Duke 
de Feltre has told this to your Prince, he will 
find himself mistaken if he thinks the whole 
army will not be found in all its force : we shall 
have our 300,000 men directly." I learn every- 
body is most anxious for peace, and that the 
Emperor talks most quietly. 

He asked Madame Moret if there were many 
English here. She said, " No ; they had run away." 
Ah, he said, " Us se ressouviennent de ce que fai 
fait auparavant, mais ces temps sont passes." She 
told this to Lord Kinnaird. 

Called on Mrs. Bailly Wallis. She informed 
me that a great friend and agent of Eouche's 
told her that a printed paper was flung into 

VOL. I 32 



250 PARIS Chap. VII. 

1815. his window, stating that on March 16 the tocsin 
would sound, the cannon would be fired in Paris, 
and' a Republic established on the ruins of the 
Monarchy. At this juncture Napoleon landed, and 
either prevented or matured the revolution. He told 
Fouch6 and others concerned that they had been 
too precipitate by three months. There are two 
versions. Some say they did know, others they 
did not know of his second coming. A change 
was certain — the King never could go on. The 
Duke of Orleans had a good chance, and even now 
some of the soldiers wear hyacinths, his symbol. 

Mrs. B. Wallis told me that the alarm of the 
English to get away was more ridiculous than 
could be conceived. They said, " He is coming, 
he is coming," not daring to name him. Delicate 
ladies mounted diligences ; brave men took to, 
their beds ; Somerset's fright was the worst. 

Went to Madame Souza's, and was there intro- 
duced to a small circle. De Mahaut asked me 
whether it was true that we in England knew 
nothing of public opinion in Erance. He told me 
that the Emperor had sent offers to England which 
had been returned. I told him to try again, at 
which he left me abruptly. 

Madame de Souza confirmed all I heard of the 
revolutionary state of things, and the folly of our 
going to war against a whole nation. The women 
at Vesoul told young de Elahaut to tell the 
Emperor that if their husbands did not fight, 
they would. 



Chap. VII. THE TUILEKIES 251 

Everybody was very civil to ma petite per- 1815. 
Sonne. A general alarm at war; therefore, this 
may be just the time to make it, or it may be 
not. 

April 16. — Went to Madame Souza's. She was 
telling me the mistakes of the Bourbons, when in 
came a friend, Mr. Le Roy, to whom she said, 
" Now say no more, for you see his opinion by the 
colour of his hair." 

Set off for the Tuileries, I with Latour Maubourg,' 
whom I told that I had come to Erance purposely 
to see Napoleon — true enough. We dismounted 
at a gate of the Tuileries gardens, and I took 
Madame de Souza under my arm. She entertained 
me with telling her son's merits, who, indeed, is 
a charming person — he has been wounded nine 
times, is twenty-nine years old. The Due de Berri 
said to him, " What rank have you held ? " "I 
was aide-de-camp to the Emperor Napoleon." 
" In what campaign did you serve ? " " In all." 
The Duke turned up his nose and walked off. 

Got at last into the apartments of the Queen 
Hortense of Holland on the ground floor looking 
into the Court of the Tuileries. One of the party 
we met was a beautiful, soft-eyed woman, to whom 
I was introduced by the Madame de Souza, and 
who proved to be the Duchess of Vicenza. She 
had some talk with me, and prayed for peace with 
England. 

' Marie V. Marquis de Latour Maubourg (1756-1860), a general 
who served with distinction in the Egyptian, German, Spanish, and 
Russian campaigns. , Was Minister for War in 1820. 



252 PARIS Chap. VH. 

1815. The square began to be filling with the National 
Guard, who filed in without number. Thirty 
thousand were to be reviewed ; twelve legions, 
forty-eight battalions. The Duchess told me a 
hundred cannons were to be fired to-day for the 
reduction of Marseilles and the general peace of 
the Empire, and she mistook drums for guns. In 
other instances she showed her anxiety. She said 
she did not fear the military, but was frightened 
at the men in plain clothes standing near the 
entrance of the palace, where the Emperor was to 
mount. Latour Maubourg said, " I am under no 
alarm," to which she replied, " I own willingly 
that you are braver than I am." Indeed, this 
day has long been fixed as a day on which some 
great blow was to be struck by the Jacobins or 
others. Some said a woman was to do the deed. 

The place continued filling with troops ; several 
led horses, of which two or three were white, and 
were led under our windows. Suddenly we heard 
a shout of " Vive VJEmpereur" and I ran through 
the rooms to the gate of entrance. Napoleon had 
mounted and was gone off the left of the line. 
In a short time, however, the cries of , " Vive 
VEmpereur " came towards us again, and an officer 
galloped by waving his sword to the line. Shortly 
after followed Napoleon himself with his cortege, 
and distinguished from them all by being in a 
plain cocked hat, without tassels or feathers, but 
ornamented only with the small tricoloured 
cockade. His hat was placed square on his head ; 



Chap. Vn. DESCRIPTION OF NAPOLEON 253 

his uniform was that of a Golonel of the National 1815. 
Guards, with -one star and a small cross hanging 
from his button. He went past on a canter, and 
suddenly drew up. An old soldier near me said, 
" See there how he stops to read the petition of the 
meanest of his army." I could not help waving 
my hat and joining in the cry. 

I caught repeated glances of the Emperor as he 
cantered down the lines. He seemed to stop at 
the end between each line, and his approach and 
progress were always announced by shouts of 
" Vive." 

Went to the gate again. The regiments moved 
nearer the palace, and the gates of the triumphal 
arch being opened the remainder of the Guards, 
the 24th, battalion came in from the Place de 
Carrousel. There was a crowd of officers about 
the gates of the palace, and I got amongst them. 
A space was made between the palace and the 
arch half-way, and a large body of the officers of 
the National Guard quitting their ranks came 
towards Napoleon, who with his staff drawn round 
him addressed them shortly in a speech, every now 
and then interrupted with shouts. I was close 
behind his generals but could not hear a word ; the 
press was great, and the gendarmerie on horseback 
rude. We waited then in a throng some time, 
until movements took place in the troops, who 
prepared to march by in columns of companies, 
being pressed up under the windows of the palace. 

I suddenly heard the Fives, and the Emperor 



254 PARIS Chap. vn. 

1815. passed close by me. He wheeled round, and, 
coming into an open space, just before the palace 
gates, put himself in front of his staff to review. 
He was on a lean-looking white horse. Two 
oflScers, who knew from Maubourg of my pil- 
grimage, pushed me forward, and I got within 
ten paces in front of his right hand. Scarcely 
a regiment had passed before he suddenly threw 
his foot out of the stirrup, and came with a sort 
of lumpish tread upon his feet, and put himself in 
front. His horse was led off, an aide-de-camp 
rushed forward to take hold of the stirrup, but 
was too late. Some of his staff dismounted, but a 
General with a red ribbon always stood on horse- 
back on his left. There was a press of oflB.cers 
and a very few men in plain clothes, and women 
on each side. Maubourg and myself were the 
only gentlemen in plain. 

I had for some time a most complete opportunity 
of contemplating this extraordinary being. His 
face is the very counterpart of Sir James Craufurd 
the runaway, and when he speaks he has the same 
retraction of his lips as that worthy baronet. His 
face is of a deadly pale, his jaws overhanging, but 
not so much as I had heard. His hair is short, 
of a dark, dusky brown. The lady in the Tuileries 
told me the soldiers called him notre petit tondu. 
He generally stood with his hands knit behind 
him or folded before him, three or four times 
took snuff out of a plain brown box. Once looked 
at his watch, which, by the way, had a gold face, 



Chap. VII. DESCRIPTION OF NAPOLEON 255 

and, I think, a brown hair chain, like an English i8i5. 
one. His teeth seemed regular, but not clean. 
He very seldom spoke, but when he did, smiled 
in some sort agreeably. He looked about him, 
not knitting, but joining his eyebrows. He caught 
my eye, and soon withdrew his gaze, naturally 
enough the first, I having only him to look at, 
he having some thirty thousand. 

As the front of each regiment passed he put up 
the first finger of his left hand quickly to his hat 
to salute, but did not move his head or hat. He 
had an air of sedate impatience. As the regiments 
came by they shouted, some loudly, some feebly, 
" Vive I'Empereur," and many ran out of their 
ranks with petitions, which were taken by the 
grenadier on the left. Once or twice the petitioner 
was nearly losing his opportunity, when Napoleon 
pointed to the grenadier to go and take his paper. 
A little child, in true French taste, tricked out, 
and marched before one of the regiments. A 
general laugh ensued. Napoleon contrived to 
talk to some one behind him that none of the 
ridicule might reach him. A second child, how- 
ever, dressed out with a beard like a pioneer, 
marched in front of another regiment directly up 
to him, with a petition on a battle-axe, which 
he took and read very complacently. An ill- 
looking fellow ran from the crowd, I believe, 
towards him in an old regimental with a sword 
by his side. The grenadier and another stepped 
forward and collared him, but Napoleon, un- 



256 PABIS Chap. VII. 

1815. startled, motioned them to loose him, and the 
poor fellow talked close to him some time with 
eager gestures, and with his hand on his heart. 
I did not see Napoleon equally well at all times, 
but stood, during the whole review, close to him, 
gazing at him through hats and a musket or two 
on tip-toe. 

I positively found my eyes moistened at the 
sight of the world's wonder — the same admiration 
of great actions which has often made me cry at a 
trait of Greek or Roman virtue caused this weak- 
ness ; but I do not know that if Napoleon had not 
then stood before me as the man against whom 
all Europe was rising, and as the single individual 
to dethrone whom, or rather to destroy, a million 
of men were rising to arms from the banks of the 
Tanais to the Thames, that I should have felt 
such a sensation. No ; there was something of 
pity, however unreasonable and unnecessary 
perhaps, which made me look upon him with 
such gratification and melancholy delight. Add 
besides the reflection of his recent exploit, the 
most wonderful of all his actions, and I am not 
astonished or ashamed at having experienced such 
feelings at the sight of the man who has played 
the most extraordinary, gigantic part of any human 
being in ancient and modern times. 

The last regiment of the National Guard was 
followed up by the boys of the Imperial Lyceum, 
who came rushing by shouting, and many of them 
running out of their ranks with petitions. Then, 



Cist. VH. I*ANNY BEAtfHAENAiS 257 

for the first time, Napoleon seemed delighted. i8i5. 
He opened his mouth almost to a laugh, and 
turned round to his attendants right and left, with 
every expression of pleasure. I did not catch the 
sound of his voice. I should say that Mahaut 
brought Lady Kinnaird into the cortege behind 
him, which making some bustle, he turned round, 
and on Lady Kinnaird blushing and dropping 
several curtsies, made, I believe, an obeisance. 
The people by me said, " Ah, it is la petite 
Anglaise." 

After the boys went by he went into the 
palace. I followed with the crowd, and found 
him sitting on the steps speaking to some one. I 
pressed up within two paces of him; he passed 
quickly upstairs and received his Court, some 
of which shortly after came down. 

!Panny Beauharnais was once a beauty. She 
was vastly civil to me, asked me how I liked the 
sight, and seemed pleased at my curiosity. She 
ended by saying, I believe, she hoped to see me 
again. She talked anxiously about peace. I 
always say what is true. I believe the people 
are for, the Ministers against it. Mrs. Damer 
tells me Lord Wellesley is gone to Vienna. I 
called on Mrs. Wallis, at whose house I met a 
Mr. G., who took me to task for being dazzled with 
the Emperor. He is a clever man and talks very 
well. I asked him how the Parisians and French 
in general showed such unconcern at such strange 
events. He said, " Parmi nous, on compte la vie 

VOL. I 33 



258 PARIS Chap. VII. 

1815. pour rien, presque tous ont servis, et apr^s qu'on. 
a couru ce risque il n'y a plus a craigner, il n'y 
a que la vie qu'on peut perdre." 

April 17. — Went to the Palais Royal, bought 
three numbers of Le Vieux Republicain, one an 
address to Napoleon. 

I see pasted up the telegraphic despatch giving 
account of the voluntary reduction of Marseilles, by 
the Minister of War, Davout. The Government 
naturally attaches a great importance to this news. 
It appears a body of 2,000 men moved upon Gap, 
and that they were defeated by 300 and a com- 
pany of artillery ; 250 killed and wounded. The 
Duke of Angouleme has certainly been taken, but 
no one knows what has become of him. The 
Emperor, in his speech to the National Guards 
yesterday, dwelt on the reduction of the Marseil- 
lois, and mentioned that one hundred pieces of 
cannon would tell the news to their neighbours. 
He says the nations arm, but are not at war with 
Erance. France arnis, and is also at peace. 

Read Le Vieux RSpuMicain, in which some 
strong things are said to Napoleon, who is told to 
make himself the King of the people. 

April 18. — Galled on Lady Kinnaird, who 
amongst other things told me of the follies of the 
Duke of Wellington's public addresses to Grassini, 
who lived in the same house with the Duchess ; 
also of Madame de Stael's having a house a little 
way out of Paris and setting up a Kensington 
and a Lady Holland. Also that sixty priests 



Chap. VII. THE CRISIS IN TRANCE 259 

dined every day at the Tuileries, Madame some- isis. 
times presiding. This has been confirmed to me by 
several. 

Dined with Lady Kinnaird ; met there La 
Marquise de Coigny, her relatives Luttrell, 

Latour Maubourg, Mrs. Darner, Prince 

(something). 

Madame de Ooigny's relative, who is exiled as 
one of the maison de roi, told me that there were 
great troubles in Provence, and that the priests 
and nobles ran a chance of being massacred, and 
that Napoleon was obliged to encourage this 
spirit for the sake of making the war national. 

He told me the emigred noblesse were foolish 
enough on returning to demand the exclusive 
right of chase over all the new seigniories, so that 
the great change effected by the revolution, 
namely, so many peasants becoming absolute 
masters of national lands, was in danger, to all 
appearance, of being annulled. Napoleon has had 
recourse to Pouche and Carnot, and at last even 
to Benjamin Constant, who the day before his, 
arrival wrote the most violent philippic agains^ 
him. 

All agree that Prance is at a crisis. Claims, 
and questions which had long been laid asleep., 
were once more brought into play by the Bour-. 
bons. Every principle of dissension was revived, 
so that at this moment the shock of parties seems 
inevitable and the revolution of '89 instead of 
bieing concluded may be said to be just begun, ^p 



260 PARIS Chap. VII. 

1815. far as relates to any chance of final settlement and 
repose ; it would be folly to guess at what a month 
may produce. 

All agree that the Bourbons would not have sat 
on the throne six months longer. The lame 
Prince even went so far as to tell me that the move- 
ment of Count d'Erlon and Desnouettes was inde- 
pendent of Buonaparte, and that Soult, with all 
his contrivances, so far from being engaged with 
Napoleon had a wish so to embroil the military 
and civilians as to create a disturbance and offer 
himself for the crown. Certainly it is only just 
now that the Emperbr has seen him, although he 
has demanded audience before. 

The lame Prince told me that Macdonald the 
marshal had told his brother that the Due de Berri 
had put him on his staff, on which Macdonald re- 
spectfully told him that he would command a 
division or corps, but could not be on his B/.H.'s 
staff, to which the Duke replied, "You would 
not have given such an answer to Buonaparte." 
"No," he said; " certainly not, but your Royal 
Highness is not Buonaparte." 

I went to the Princess Jablanowski's, and met 
there Count Sierakonski, another Pole, the Polish 
Colonel Jermanouski, who accompanied Napoleon 
to Elba and back, and General Kozciuscko. In 
other times I should have looked much at this 
character, but things on so vast a scale are now 
performing ; and then the Colonel, who had just 
come from the dinner given by the National 



Chap. VII. DETAILS 0¥ ESCAPE FEOM ELBA 261 

Guards to the Imperial Guards, and brought some 1815. 
of the songs with him and toasts, was telling 
anecdotes of the great man, and his late trium- 
phant invasion. 

At this dinner there were twelve tables laid for 
sixty or seventy of all classes of soldiers, a mix- 
ture which gave the Princess and her Poles great 
delight. 

The Colonel told us Campbell was too much of 
a politician, too little of a soldier. What a change 
a little place at Court can make in a man. No one 
was less diplomatic than Campbell, when I knew 
him in Germany. 

Two men certainly came to Elba to assassinate 
Napoleon, one named Pompeii, from Corsica, and 
another who had even a gun on purpose. The 
attendants of Napoleon had contrived a little police 
among themselves. The Colonel commanded at 
Porto Longone, and had as a spy the physician of 
the English Consul. They knew beforehand of the 
man sent by Brulart from Corsica, and dismissed 
him, keeping his gun. 

The Colonel had about four hundred men under 
him. He had no notion of the real intention of 
Napoleon. Six days before Napoleon had sent 
for him, and asked him how many vessels were in 
Porto Longone. He told him three or four. He 
was ordered to hire them and provision them, and 
stop all boats, etc., from leaving the port. This 
he did, when an Englishman who was detained 
came storming to him, and said his detention 



262 PARIS Chap. VH. 

1815. might bring on a war between Great Britain and 
the Emperor. The Colonel smiled and treated 
him civilly, but kept him. 

The day before the embarkation, the Colonel 
disbursed thirteen or fourteen thousand franks to 
make a road. He was the next day arranging his 
little garden, when he received orders from Napo- 
leon to embark all his men by six o'clock in the 
evening, and join the flotilla at a given place. 
It was so late that jt was impossible to get them 
on board before half-past seven, after which, he, 
according to his orders, was rowed in a boat to the 
brig which contained the Emperor, who, when he 
came on board, said : " Ah, comment qa va-t-il ou 
est voire monde,'" and said no more. The Colonel 
knew not, and no one appeared to know where 
they were going. 

The next morning, however, the wind was 
declared good for Italy. All thought they were 
going to Naples, but soon Napoleon told his plan, 
and began to dictate his proclamations, which 
were read aloud, and which he very frequently 
corrected. Everybody set to copy them, and 
about fifty copies of each to the army and Erench 
nation were got ready. 

The next work was to make national cockades, 
and this was easily done by ripping off one round 
of the Elba cockade. Napoleon had first on coming 
to Elba instituted a cockade too like the national 
one, and, fearing^ th,i§ might give umbrage, 
altered it.. 



Chap. VII. DETAILS OP NAPOLEON's ESCAPE 263 

Whilst on board there was scarcely any sleeping, isis. 
The troops assembled round the Emperor, and 
familiarly asked him all sorts of questions and 
opinions relative to living characters : Kings, 
Marshals, and Ministers— many of them indiscreet, 
but all which he answered and discoursed with an 
easy, persuasive eloquence on a variety of topics, 
to the delight and instruction of all about him. 
He said in a case like this one must think slowly, 
but act promptly. I have long and maturely 
weighed this prospect, for military men who have 
so often faced death, the reverse which may await 
us is not terrifying. 

At last they got to Cannes. A party was sent 
to Antibes, and fired upon. This was an un- 
pleasant commencement, but they were not afraid 
of the garrison of Antibes, of about twelve thou- 
sand. There were 800 Imperial Guards, and three 
or four hundred others. Napoleon had often given 
rank in his army to poor fellows who came from 
all quarters to Elba, but whom he said he could 
only give fifty or perhaps even thirty franks a 
month. On landing, Napoleon told the Colonel 
that he had brought only four horses with him, 
which had disembarked a little farther off, so that 
the Colonel and others put their saddles on their 
backs and walked sometime to the horses. Napo- 
leon mounted one, General Cambronne another, 
Molat a third, and the Colonel the fourth. 
Bertrand said, " No, I'll march on foot." The 
Colonel was given money by Napoleon to go into 



264 PARIS Chap. VII. 

1815. the country and buy horses to mount Ms troop. 
He did so, and bought fifteen in a hurry for treble 
their value. They sent a soldier to Digne, who 
was detained ; this took as bad as Antibes. How- 
ever, the great object was to get to Grenoble or 
rather the defile of Viselle, or some such name, 
before the alarm. 

They marched might and main ; the peasants of 
the villages said nothing, all stared. The first 
man who joined them was a soldier-grenadier 
who was in the middle of the road and was stopped 
by the Emperor. He was told by the Colonel he 
had better join them. He said he would, but he 
must go and tell his mother, who lived three 
leagues ofp. He would rejoin the Emperor, which 
he did, and tapped up the Colonel in the night to 
tell him he was come, desiring him to report it 
to the Emperor immediately. His name was 
Melon. 

They arrived at Grasse, a town of ten thousand 
inhabitants perhaps, where Napoleon left his three 
pieces of cannon and his sister Pauline's carriage, 
as they could not get them through the mountains. 
The people stared and said nothing as they passed 
— would not believe it was the Emperor. How- 
ever, when they had halted on a hill above the 
town, the inhabitants took a sudden turn and 
came up to them and supplied a good breakfast 
for 1,200 people. Erom that moment the people 
in all the villages and towns received him with 
transports. The road was blocked up to his 



Chap. VII. NAPOLEON AT GRENOBLE 265 

quarters ; it was difficult for him to march.. He 1815. 
rode on horsehack generally, but sometimes 
walked. However, no troops had joined him. 
They advanced upon the defile of Viselle, the 
Colonel was ordered forwards ; he saw regiments 
drawn up with white flags, and, as he tried to 
parlementer, an officer in a fierce tone cried out, 
riding forward: "Ji? n'ai point de commtmication 
avec vous ; 4loignez-vous ; je fais tirer," on which 
the Colonel tried to pacify him, saying it was not 
with him he was to speak but the Emperor. 
The officer still talked big, when Napoleon came 
forward, his soldiers with arms reversed, and 
going up to the troops, told them if they pleased 
to fire upon and kill him. The soldiers, who were 
composed of the 7th and 12th of the line, and 
chosen on purpose, cried, " Vive VMnpereur," 
and joined him, the officers trying to make them 
fire. It was not till afterwards that a horseman 
rode up to the Colonel, and said, " Je vous salue 
de la part du Colonel Labedoyere,^' who presently 
came over with his regiment. Thus was Grenoble 
gained, and 3,000 men, which settled the whole. 
The Emperor when there was at an inn ; the 
people burst in, and there were at least fifty 
strangers all round him, without his having a 
single guard or man of his troops with him — he 
was alone. The Colonel and others got in and 
barricaded the doors, but they still pushed in. 
The same eagerness to see and congratulate 
Napoleon prevailed everywhere up to Paris, except 
VOL. I 34i 



266 tARlS Chap. Vll. 

1815. at Macon, the only place where the Colonel was 
not directed to the Emperor's quarters by the 
crowd about the door. The people pressing about 
him at all other places prevented the possibility of 
guarding him, so he was often, as at Grenoble, 
alone. 

The Colonel said that several English wanted to 
embark at Elba with Napoleon. He also had 
heard of the event expected on last Sunday from 
the National Guards. 

Erom all I can make out it appears Napoleon 
came just in time to take advantage of the 
revolutionary spirit, and prevent the establish- 
ment of a Republic, which would have shut him 
out for ever. Who his informers were is not yet 
known ; the whole, as the young lame Prince said 
to me, is wrapt in inextricable mystery. 

April 19. — ^Walking this day in the Palais 
E/oyal and parterres I observed how quickly and 
entirely they had taken down all roi/al signs. 
Everything is Imperial : coffee-houses, du Roi de 
Rome ; tailor, to their Imperial Majesties ; 
Biblioth^que Imp6riale ; pictures of the Imperial 
family. Walking into a shop, I saw all those of 
Monsieur and the royal family turned with their 
faces to the wall. 

April 20. — I breakfasted with Bruce. He men- 
tioned that the night the King ran away he walked 
by the Tuileries at half -past twelve, and saw the 
King's carriages drawn up, but not a soul but the 
coachman with them. The gentleman who handed 



Chap. VII. ANECDOTES OP NAPOLEON 267 

Louis XVIII. into his carriage assured Bruce isis. 
the King was much affected, and expressed fears 
for his safety. How contradictory this to Lady 
Kinnaird's story ! 

Gouville always carries opium-pills with him 
to prevent another imprisonment. Humholdt 
is going to Thibet to visit the mountains chiefly. 

I walked about the Tuileries, admired Napoleon's 
terrace. Drove to the Musee Napoleon, over the 
door of which the bronze laurel and crowned bust 
of the Emperor are placed again. Saw the work- 
men replacing the Imperial symbols, exactly in 
the same place as last year at this time, I saw 
them taking them down. 

Went to Madame de Souza's, where was a stiff, 
formal party. The women of the new school, 
the beautiful Madame Caulaincourt, the beautiful 
daughter of Marshal Macdonald, and others. 

April 21. — Saw Mrs. Wallis to-day, who dined 
in company with the Polish Colonel of Elba, who 
told her that the first night of the embarkation 
was occupied in repainting their brig from yellow- 
and-grey to black-and-white, so that by the next 
morning no one could know her. Also that at Gas- 
tillian, between Cannes and Grasse, Napoleon tried 
to make the post-master drink " Vive VMrnpereur" 
but he would only drink, " Vive le Boi." At last 
he was got to drink " a voire santS" to Napoleon, 
who was much pleased at his loyalty. He said 
that every Sunday at Elba Napoleon had several 
children to dine with him. 



268 PARIS Chap. VII. 

1815. I went to the !Pran9ais, where Hector and Le 
Lys were acted, and where Napoleon came ahout 
the third scene. 

The house was crammed full, and previously to 
the curtain rising the airs of "La Victoire," and 
the " Marseillaise " were called for and performed 
amidst thunders of applause. 

A performer of the Feydeau said he would sing 
the Marseillaise from the halcony, which he did, 
and was joined at the chorus hy all the house. 
The enthusiasm of the military was at the pitch. 
" Vive I' Empereur " was a thousand times re- 
peated when Napoleon appeared. 

I recollect the Princes going to the theatre this 
time last year. Certainly the Bourhon exultation 
was not half so great. 

Napoleon's face appeared new to me, so difficult 
is it to fix it decidedly in your mind, as the 
painters have found. He was sitting down and 
his officers standing. Plahaut, I think, was 
behind his chair. He was very attentive, and 
whilst I saw him spoke to no one. The audience 
applied all the speeches both concerning Hector 
and Achilles to him : " enfin il reparait" and 
" c'Stait lui, Achille," drew down unnumbered 
" Fives." Talma was very great in Hector. 
Andromache gave us the translation of Homer, 
also in good style. 

Napoleon's hair is very thin. He had long 
white shirt-wrists. He went away suddenly at 
the end of the play and had a short shout. 



Chap. VII. THE IMPERIAL GUARD 269 

April 22. — Went to Bruce 's and saw John 1815. 
Macnamara, who gave an account of an interview 
he had with Napoleon in Elba on the 13th or 14th 
of last January.^ 

April 23. — I walked to the Place du Carrousel 
and saw a review. Napoleon walked on foot 
between most of the ranks ; nothing can exceed 
the appearance of the Imperial Guard. The 
quick march at the pas de charge before the 
Emperor made the eyes of all about me glisten. 
The soldiers could not help crying " Vive VJEm- 
pereur" though it appears this exclamation was 
forbidden. . . . 

April 24. — Napoleon is Emperor of the French 
by the grace of God, and without an interval, 
as Louis reigned nineteen years in England. 
This objection I foresaw, and it seems to have 
thrown all people into a conviction that their 
hopes of Napoleon's having changed are void of 
foundation. Those who spoke loudly in his praise 
before are now silent, those who were formerly 
silent are now violent in their detraction. 

April 26. — ^A wonderful change has taken place 
since the publication of the Constitution ; but yet I 
hear observing people say, n'importe, the French 
always talk — the thing will be forgot in twelve 
days. 

April 29. — I called on Bruce, and found Mr. 
de Lascour. He said Napoleon had no sort of 

'• The substance of Mr. Macnamara's interview is transcribed in the 
middle of Chapter V, so that the narrative may not be interrupted. 



270 PARIS Chap. VII. 

1815. enthusiasm of head or heart, nothing seemed to 
affect him. He was with him at Fontainebleau at 
his abdication last year, and was standing near 
him when he was reviewing his troops, and 
Oaulaincourt whispered to him his fall and formal 
dethronement. He just drew back and bit his 
lips, nothing else. He seemed a little quiet for 
twenty -four hours — no more; afterwards he had 
the same spirits and manners. He told Mr. de 
Lascour that it was not the armies nor the peoples 
that had dethroned him, not the sovereigns of 
Europe, nor the vast efforts of England, but the 
march of liberal ideas, and, if he had listened 
to them four or five years ago, his power would 
have been confirmed for ever. " However," said 
he gaily, " I did not, and it is come to this." 

Mr. de Lascour was the person who prevented 
Paris from being blown up according to Napoleon's 
orders. 

Lascour said people now talk, formerly no one 
spoke of politics in society ; if he did he had a visit 
from the police, who warned him a repetition of 
his remarks would send him from Paris. They 
never talked of the killed and wounded in their 
battles, which he said he understood made an 
effect in England. 

He said the abdication at Eontainebleau was a 
perfect drama, and a melancholy one. He could 
not help pitying a great captain reduced to the 
necessity of resigning his sword and his crown, 
and deserted by his soldiers and servants. When 



Chap. Vlt II? THE TtJILEEIES CHAPEli ^71 

they got up each morning and inquired for such 1815. 
and such marshal or general, he was gone, gone 
to Paris^hey dropped off one hy one. Napoleon 
hore it unmoved. 

April 30. — Macnamara having procured tickets 
from Marshal Bertrand, he and I went at eleven 
to the Imperial chapel in the Tuileries. The 
Imperial Guard, who were regulating the aisle, 
gave a sort of signal with their guns, presented 
arms, and in came Napoleon, and with him his 
brother, the King of Spain, in a broad red ribbon. 
Napoleon was, as usual, simple, in green. 

He was towards me all the time, and I, being 
opposite below, enjoyed the sight of him during 
the whole mass. I looked at nothing else — the 
fine music in the gallery opposite occupied me not, 
the priests and ceremony I thought nothing of, 
though warned by the clash of the muskets, 
which it seems was the signal for praying or some 
part of the mass ; the presenting of arms was the 
reverence to the host. 

Napoleon was perpetually swaying about, not 
still for an instant. He took up the mass -book 
once, opened it, and put it down on its face, then 
took it up, turned over the leaves without looking 
and put it down again. He fixed his eye on 
myself, I stared him out as before. He was 
perpetually restless. 

Another clash of muskets gave the signal of 
the Emperor's departure and the end of the mass,, 
which lasted about fifteen minutes. This perhaps- 



272 PARIS Chap. VII. 

1815. is the last sight I shall ever have of Napoleon the 
Great. 

May 20. — Letter from Kinnaird. He tells me 
he and Byron are managers of Drury Lane. He 
wants me to send him farces, etc., from Prance. 

May 22. — Saw the Emperor go by in his carriage 
towards the Elysee palace. He had but a trifling 
guard with him, and none beside his carriage 
windows, out of which he looked as he passed my 
window. I saw him very distinctly, and agree I 
never saw anybody with such a face — the lower 
part is not ever imitable scarcely, except in 
Mrs. Damer's picture. 

May 28. — Went to the Eeview. Napoleon stood 
sometimes nearly under my window looking at 
some regiments of the line on foot, and absolutely 
mixed with the troops. He marched in time by 
the side of a column filing, absolutely confounded 
with them. I saw him go up to a grenadier 
presenting arms to him as he was walking down 
the line, and after talking to him for two minutes 
pull him by the nose. I also saw him, when a 
middle-aged Colonel of the line ran up to him and 
began to talk, interrupt him by giving him a 
sound box on the left ear, at which the Colonel 
seemed delighted, and went away smiling and 
showing his ear, which was red with the blow. I, 
who had never seen such things, was almost 
alarmed when I saw Napoleon raise himself — for 
the man was tall — and strike, apparently with all 
his heart, but a man near me in general's uniform 



Chap. VII. NAPOLEON LEAVES PAUIS 273 

told me that a soldier once crying out as Napoleon i8i5. 
was passing, " Vive VBmpereur " alone, Napoleon 
stopped, went up to him, and asked him how 
many campaigns he had served, and if he had ever 
been promoted. The man told him and added, 
" On m'a fait la queue trois fois pour la croix." 
"Ah Men," said Napoleon, "je te donne la queue," 
and gave him a slap in the face. He got the cross 
immediately — -faire la queue is to take in — 
hence a caricature representing Napoleon tying 
Louis' pigtail. 

June 1. — Went with Bruce to the Champ de 
Mai. 

Extract from "Last Eeign." — Napoleon seems 
to have taken a last leave of the people of Paris, 
in the fete of Sunday, the 4th. . . . Not a melan- 
choly nor an angry face was to be seen throughout 
the vast concourse thus celebrating, as it were, 
the eve of a day which must make widows and 
orphans of half the officiating crowd. But the 
life of this people is liveliness, which is their mode 
of existence. . . . 

In the evening of this day there was an illumi- 
nation at the Tuileries, and a public concert 
performed in a temporary structure in front of 
the centre balcony of the palace. There was an 
immense but orderly crowd opposite to this part 
of the palace, and stretching far down the centre 
walk, towards the Champs Ely sees. The palace 
and gardens were lighted up by nine o'clock, and 
in three quarters of an hour the pavilion, in the 

VOL. I 35 



^74 tAuis cftA*. vtt. 

1815. midst of the orcliestra, had some tapers placed in 
it. The musicians arrived, and were ranged on 
each side, in the open air. Soon afterwards 
Napoleon, in his Spanish hat and feather, and in 
his crimson tunic, appeared at the window, with 
the princes of his family and the Princess Hortense. 
He stepped forwards into his pavilion, saluted the 
people quickly three or four times and sat down. 
The orchestra performed an overture, and then 
sung the Lyonnaise, which was received with 
raptures : other music performed, which did not, 
however, last long, and was ended hy the Vivat 
in cetermmb. It was a romantic sight, and such 
as those only who have seen the Tuileries illumi- 
nated can conceive. The presence of the Emperor 
and his Court, with the music in the open air, and 
the unnumbered crowd seen, as at noonday, in 
the lustre of glittering palaces and groves, added 
to the fairy sprightliness of the scene; and a 
spectator might have thought himself anywhere 
hut in Erance, had he not known that in no other 
country could he witness such a sight. . . . The 
day terminated without a single accident, although 
the shouts of " Vive I' Empereur " were prolonged 
by the parties of feasted federates to a late hour 
of the night. . . . 

Napoleon had passed the whole morning of this 
day, until seven o'clock, in receiving the electoral 
colleges and the military and naval deputations. 
He first saw them on his throne in the Tuileries, 
and afterwards passed them in review in the 



Chap. VII. NAPOLEON LEAVES FOB, THE FRONT 275 

gallery of the Museum, down tlie whole length isie 
of which the departments, with their eagles, were 
ranged to the right, and the land and sea armies, 
with their eagles, to the left ; the saloon at 
the extremity heing filled with deputations of 
the Imperial Guards, of the invalids, and of the 
veterans. The Emperor spoke to many of the 
ten thousand who were present, and with his 
accustomed ease and variety of conversation ; 
replying to intelligence hy no means agreeable 
with a frankness most unroyal. He spoke, 
amongst others, to a friend of mine, a colonel in 
the army, a notorious royalist, and an elector for 
the Marseillais. " How many electors met in your 
department, colonel ? " " Thirteen, sire." " Ah, 
comment ! How many deputies did you choose ? " 
" Six," " What ! six deputies for thirteen electors ? 
V esprit doit Stre Men mauvais la ; il faut le 
ranimer." Napoleon said this with a face half 
serious, half smiling, as if he knew how happy 
my Colonel was to tell such news, for he was 
well acquainted with him; and when he added 
" Oui, sire,'" made a sort of grimace, and 
walked on. 

Diary. June 12. — Napoleon is gone. He said 
in his speech of yesterday to the deputies, " I go 
ofe to-night." 

I call on the police — get my passport vised 
pour le depart. 

From "Last Reign." — Regarding Napoleon and 
his warriors as the partisans of the cause of peoples 



276 UNABLE TO LEAVE PBANGE Chap. VII. 

1815. against the conspiracy of kings, whatever may be 
my regret that that cause has not fallen into 
hands so pure as to command unqualified support, 
I cannot help wishing that the French may meet 
with as much success as will not compromise the 
military character of my own countrymen. But, 
as an Englishman, I will not he witness to their 
triumphs ; as a lover of liberty, I would not be a 
spectator of their reverses. I leave Paris to- 
morrow. The police and Minister for Foreign 
Affairs signed my passport for Geneva at the first 
demand ; and, as I learn, no difficulty has hitherto 
been put in the way of any one wishing to quit the 
capital or the country. 

Diary. June 13. — Left Paris with Bruce. 

June 16. — When at St. Pan, an Englishman, 
who had settled down as a victualler of the 
French armies, good-humouredly came to look 
after us, and returning, walked about with us. 
He said that when Ney came through Dole from 
Lons-le-Saunier to oppose Napoleon, he talked 
very big for the Bourbons. 

Jerome came through some time after, and was 
as much feted as the Count d'Artois had been in 
the last year's progress he made, for the expenses 
of which the " communes " have not yet been 
paid. 

June 17. — At Morez we were asked for our 
passports, and soon had them returned with the 
information that the General would not suffer us 
to proceed. 



Chap. Vn. BETTJB.N TO PARIS 277 

We went to the General, who told ns General , isis. 
Lecourbe had been to the advanced posts the day 
before — had stopped every sort of communication 
with Switzerland, and had let the' diligence go for 
the last time to Gex because there was an elector 
from the Champ de Mai in it. It was in' vain 
we reasoned with him, and showed him a letter 
which Bruce carried from Count MoUien, Minister 
of the Treasury to Marechal Suchet. 

June 18. — The General remained inflexible, and 
signed our passports to go back to Paris. 

June 19. — ^We retraced our steps and proceeded 
to Bourg, the capital of the department of the 
Ain, where we were shown a telegraphic despatch 
from Prince Joseph to the Commander-in-Chief ^of 
the Army of the Alps, Suchet stating the Sambre 
to have been forced, Charleroi taken, and the 
Emperor to have gained a complete victory over 
the Duke of Wellington and Bliieher on the 16th. 

Prom " Last Eeign." — Moniteurs up to the 
20th have arrived regularly, and you may easily 
conceive the eagerness with which they are 
pursued. That of the 14th contains no other 
intelligence than that Napoleon was at Soissons 
at ten in the morning of the 12th, and at Laon 
at four in the afternoon, where he visited the 
works before he continued his journey. 

The paper of the 18th gives at last the official 
detail of this first action, and also the Emperor's 
address to the army, dated Avesnes, June 14, 



278 PARIS— SENNECY Chap. Vn. 

1815. conceived in his usual terms, telling his soldiers 
that he addresses them on the anniversary of 
Marengo and Priedland. A despatch mentions the 
affair of Montmellian by Marshal Suchet. The 
Emperor, in a letter of the 16th, has written with 
his own hand " Letort is better." 

The same Moniteur contains, in six lines, the 
following intelligence, strangely squeezed into a 
corner of a column : 

" Behind Ligny, June 16. 
" Half-past eight in the evening. 

" The Emperor has just obtained a complete 
victory over the Prussian and English armies 
united, under the orders of Lord Wellington and 
Marshal Bliicher. The army debouches at this 
instant by the village of Ligny, in front of 
Eleurus, to pursue the enemy." 

I must inform you, that from Eontainebleau to 
the frontiers, through all the country through 
which we have traversed, there appears but one 
sentiment, that of defending the national cause to 
the last. In the Jura and long line of frontier 
we have pursued, the whole population is in arms. 
Posts and beacons are established at every turn of 
the road, and guarded by peasants of all ages with 
pikes and fowling-pieces. In Pranche-Comte the 
school-children have enrolled themselves. 

I do not say that the Emperor, in these 
countries, is the object of unqualified regard, but 
I do assert that the Bourbons are much less so; 
and that scarcely any innkeeper or post-master 
fails to tell some tale to their disadvantage, with 



Jhap. Vn. MUST RUMOURS OP WATERLOO 279 

ivhich these princes furnislied. them in their un- 1815. 
paid progresses through the provinces. The usual 
character given of Napoleon here is, that he is 
a great man, fit for Prance and frenchmen, hut 
too fond of war. The predominant wish, I may 
say passion, of the people and soldiers, in every 
part of the country I have seen, is peace, which 
the ignorant, sanguinary statesmen of Congress 
will not see or allow, hecause they are in want 
of war themselves. Nothing hut the general re- 
cognition of the necessity of defending their inde- 
pendence could have prompted the nohle exertions, 
which, whatever may he their issue, must give 
them claim to an admiration that no helligerents, 
since the struggles of the Swiss and Dutch re- 
publics, can extort from an unprejudiced observer. 

Diary. June 25. — Bourg. The prefect sent 
us our passports vised for our return to Paris, 
and the Due d'Albufera's letter with a certificate 
of his own underneath it, so we left Bourg. 

At St. Albin, as we were going off, a man came 
to our carriage side and asked us if we heard 
the news. What news ? Why, bad news — the 
jEJmperor returned to Paris — has abdicated. . . . 
At Sennecy we agreed to stop ten minutes, and 
here we did see a paper — the Journal de Cam- 
pagnes, which gave an extract from a supplement 
to the Mbniteur of June 21. 

Napoleon had gained victories over the Prussians 
on the 16th and 17th, attacked the English on the 
18th, and beat them up to half -past eight, wheu 



280 SENNBCY Chap. Vll. 

1815. a desperate charge being made on some Englisli 
batteries by four battalions of the middle guard, 
and these battalions being thrown into confusion 
by a charge of British cavalry, a rout took place. 
The Erench army thought the old guard had been 
repulsed. "Xa vieille garde est repoussee'' was the 
cry, which was followed up by shouts, supposed 
treacherous, of " Sauve qui pent." The whole 
army began to run. In vain the old guard tried 
to stop it ; it was carried away by the mass of 
fugitives, even the squadrons of the bodyguard 
round the Emperor were borne backwards. All 
rushed to the point of communication, and a 
complete defeat ensued. Cannons, carriages, all 
the park of artillery, and the material of the 
army were left and taken on the field of battle. 
The Emperor returned to Paris. 

The people at the post-house would not believe 
this news we told them. However, the post- 
master said, " It is all true ; il a Me completement 
battu." It was the impatience of the middle, 
guard. Certainly there could be but little doubt 
now ; and yet we did not entirely believe. 

June 26. — . . . These events overwhelm the 
imagination. He was beaten by the perseverance 
of the English, and, it appears, his own obstinacy 
in making an effort at so late an hour, when his 
troops were exhausted. 

I see the colours of the 69th regiment are said to 
have been taken in the battle of the l7th. My 
cares divided by my brother and Napoleon. 



Chap. Vn. PARIS A&AIN 281 

June 27. — At Sens the landlady told us that a I8i5. 
regiment of 1,500 had passed by yesterday crying 
" Vive V JEmpereur, a has les royalistes." Going 
on to Pont-sur-Yonne, Villeneuve-la-Guiard, and 
Possard, we began to meet soldiers coming from 
the beaten army, mostly wounded in the hand, 
it should seem. 

At Montereau, where we showed our passports, 
we heard that Napoleon was either gone or going 
to England. Went by L'Ecluse to Melun ; dined 
there. Read in the Journal de V Empire Napoleon 
Buonaparte is gone provisionally to Malmaison, so 
it is come to this at last. There have been great 
disturbances in the two Chambers. Ney has 
declared there cannot be collected 25,000 men. 
Members have received letters telling them to 
beware of another thirteen Vendemiaire and 
eighteen Brumaire. 

The National Guard is doubled over the Assembly 
and Paris put under their care. Plenipotentiaries 
La Payette, Sebastiani, d'Argenson and Laprest, 
with B. Constant, redactors, sent to the allied 
sovereigns. Otto gone to England. After some 
debate Napoleon II. proclaimed, or rather named 
Emperor. Napoleon, in his answer to the addresses 
of the two Chambers consequent to his abdication, 
took care to tell them he resigned in favour of his 
son. Poor fellow, his expression in his abdication, 
''Ma vie politiqueest terminee," cut me to the heart. 

Proceeded to Paris. No disturbances of any 
kind. Went into the Palais Eoyal. Bought 

VOL. I 36 



282 PAEIS Chap. VII. 

1815. Mbniteurs of the last week, and read them 
partly at home. That of to-day contains Welling- 
ton's despatch — it is certain he did not know the 
extent of his victory. 

Prom "Last Reign." — The day was lost because 
the patient intrepidity of the British infantry was 
not to be overcome by the desperate effort made, 
late in the evening, with tired troops, when the 
battle was a drawn one, and when the English 
would have been happy to be left in possession of 
their ground. .... Some of the personal staff of 
Napoleon were struck with what they thought 
the obstinacy of the last attack upon the strong 
position of the English ; and General Haxo was 
beginning to remonstrate — "Mais, sire," when 
the Emperor gave him a flip with his glove in 
the face: "Taisez-vous, mon ami, voila Grouchy, qui 
vient de nous donner de ses nouvelles." They were 
Bulow's cannons which he mistook for Grouchy's, 
and which he announced as such to Ney, by Lab6- 
doy^re. The Marshal fought with his accustomed 
bravery, and having had three horses killed under 
him, was seen in advance of the line, with his 
sword drawn, and on foot, attended by a single 
corporal, who at last bore him away, exhausted 
and covered with contusions, from the scene of 
carnage. How dreadful must have been the rout 
may be collected from the confession of the 
Marshal [Ney], who tells us that he, the second in 
command, arrived alone, totally ignorant of what 
had become of the Emperor or the army, at Mar- 



Chap. Vn. PARIS IN UNCBETAINTT 283 

chiennes-sur-JPont, at four o'clock in the morning, isis. 
He says that he concluded the Emperor to be either 
taken or killed. The last sight the Marshal had of 
him was when he was conducting the four regiments 
of the middle guard, in person, to the attack. 

Lieutenant-Colonel of the Guards informed 

me that he saw Napoleon about musket-shot in 
front of the English line. An authority on which 
I have not the same entire reliance, but which is 
backed by common rumour, assured me, at Paris, 
that Napoleon made several efforts to plunge 
forward into the enemies' ranks, but was stopped 
by his staff, who held his horse by the reins. 
I see now that all this is said to be a concerted 
scene between Bertrand and Drouot and their 
Emperor. What pleasure or profit can be derived 
from the support of the paradox that a man 
who has commanded in fifty pitched battles is a 
coward ? It may be no contradiction to say that 
Napoleon, although as brave a man as ever lived, 
is yet attached to a life, which his facility of 
temper and flexibility of mind, joined to a certain 
philosophical indifference, enable him to render 
very tolerable, even in the most sudden and 
dreadful reverses. 

DiAEY. June 27. — The arrSts du gouvernement 
are to be in the nom du peuple frangais. How does 
this correspond with Napoleon II. ? The general 
expectation is that Louis XVIII. is to return ; 
the allies are known to be at St. Quentin, and 



284 PARIS Chap. VII. 

1815. said to be only twelve leagues from Paris. The 
National Guard are on strict duty. On Eriday night 
last they were all out on the discovery of a plot 
by the Pederes to seize the different dep6ts of arms. 
One gun was fired. 'Eouch.6, President of the 
Provisional Grovernment, very active, and seized 
the ringleaders. The French Habeas Corpus Act 
is to be suspended for three months, but there 
are debates thereupon, not a little violent, and 
one member in the Peers said that he should ask 
for a passport to Constantinople if every prefect 
had the right of imprisonment. 

June 28. — Bruce tells me he saw MoUien last 
night and is shocked at the manner in which the 
Government has suffered Napoleon to retreat with 
not above 40,000 or 50,000 pounds for himself, his 
family, and all his dependants. They ordered him 
off from the Elys6e Bourbon. 

Pouche is suspected of making his own bar- 
gain; the deputies begin to shake, yet Napoleon 
is still recognised by the people and soldiers. I 
see his pictures and busts everywhere. The 
Houses of Parliament are objects of contempt ; 
there is no mention made of Napoleon II, 

Bruce and I went to the Minister of the Police 
and thence to the prefecture, where they were 
very civil, seemed quite changed, quite in spirits, 
and said, " Cest decide, "Wellington will be here 
in a day or two, you are come to see your 
countrymen." I saw some of their schedules, 
in which Roi and Hoyaume were introduced. 



Chap. VII. NAPOLEON RESIGNED 285 

Thence we went to Perregaux's, where we met isis. 
Lord Kinnaird, who told us he had been arrested 
on the day after Napoleon's return as a spy of 
the Duke of Orleans and kept in Real's office 
seven hours. He was told to give his word of 
honour he would leave Prance at a minute's 
warning ; he said he could not without speaking 
to Pouch6. He was allowed to leave for two 
hours. He saw Pouch^, who said : " Fouche vous 
de qa, vous verrez aujourd'hui," in effect. 

Napoleon's abdication was read to the Chamber 
that day and Kinnaird liberated. Both Kinnaird 
and Mollien say that Napoleon is quite tranquil 
but quite lost. The latter saw him for an hour 
on last Saturday, and now he and his friend pre- 
tend that he has not been the man he was since he 
went to Elba. He had no intention of abdicating 
when he came back, but his Ministers and some 
of the Chamber of Deputies forced him. Every 
one blames him leaving the army ; every one 
blames his attack at night. He was completely 
beaten, beyond doubt.^ 

' Note feom "Last Keign." 

The authentic news of the fatal battle had reached Paris about two 
hours before Napoleon came back ; and immediately on its arrival a 
meeting assembled at the house of M. de Constant. Resolutions 
were taken to force the Emperor to abdicate, when, in the midst of 
their debate, some one entered the Chamber, and announced that 

Napoleon was in Paris. In an instant M. de C was left alone ; 

the deliberators had shot off on every side like bubbles on the water 
or frogs dispersed by the sudden falling of a stone amongst them. 
When, however, that gentleman went to a house of representatives, 
he found that the work meditated by his friends was then in the 
hands of others. 



286 PARIS Chap. VH. 

1815. Drouot has read a most interesting account 
of the battle to the House of Peers. Carnot 
appeared at first to wish to wink at the defeat, 
but Ney told him it was fausse de toute faussete ; 
the business was all up. This got Ney into 
disgrace. 

From "Last Reign." — There is only one opinion 
here as to his quitting the army, and his return to 
Paris — a plan which I know he was implored with 
tears not to follow, and which alone has been the 
immediate cause of his fall. It may appear 
presumptuous to state his real motive for such a 
fatal proceeding; but the one assigned by his 
friends is, that he wished to be himself the 
messenger of the ill news, and to prevent, by his 
presence, any strong measures which the Chambers 
might feel inclined to take against his crown. He 
is known to have said, after the disasters of the 
Russian campaign, that he would confound the 
Parisians by his presence, and fall amongst them 
like a thunderbolt. But alas, the times are 
changed : there are things which succeed only 
because they have never been done before, and 
for that reason can never be done again. How- 
ever, the effect of this fifth retreat from his 
armies, although an act in itself of but little 
importance, is an entire abandonment of him and 
his cause by all those who could have forgiven 
him a misfortune, but required that he should 
be the first to recover from the blow. Even in 
the army he has lost his best partisans ; and 



CSAP. VIT. ABDICATION OF NAPOLEON 287 

althougla his name may be the rallying "word of isis. 
some future discontent, he cannot be pardoned 
by the brave men who have seen themselves 
deserted by him at their first disaster. It cannot 
be concealed, there is in the flight of Napoleon 
a precipitancy which nothing can excuse ; and we 
must sigh, as Montesquieu did over the suicide of 
Brutus, to see the cause of liberty so easily 
abandoned. Had the Chambers dethroned him 
upon receiving the news of his defeat, the 
despair would have been theirs, and their decree 
might not have been ratified by the nation in 
arms ; but by his return he has saved them from 
that disgrace and danger, and has preserved their 
characters, whatever injury he may have done to 
his own. It was not to be expected that any 
future sacrifices should be made in the behalf of 
one whose conduct in this decisive instance has 
shown him unwilling to appreciate the value of 
their exertions. I am not, therefore, surprised to 
be informed of that which does not appear exactly 
on the face of the transactions — that Napoleon 
was compelled to abdicate by what may be called 
force, that force which enabled the Chamberlain 
Mons to depose Christiern, by telling him that he 
must resign his crown. 

It appears that Napoleon, both before and some 
time after he had signed his abdication, hung by 
the hope of retaining the crown in his family. 
His answer to the messages of the two Chambers 



288 PARIS Chap. VII. 

1815. showed his anxiety for his son, perhaps more 
prominently than hecame him ; for he must have 
known that the fact of his reminding them that 
he abdicated only for his son, would not add one 
figure to the chance of Napoleon the Second ; 
indeed, it has hitherto only given occasion for the 
intemperate and officious zeal of M. Lahedoyfere. 
When he said, in his address to the French, " I 
proclaim my son Napoleon the Second Emperor 
of the French," he erred both in form and 
substance : a constitutional monarch, stepping 
from his throne, proclaims not his successor : 
the Constitution awards the crown, and in 
virtue of that Constitution is the sovereign 
proclaimed. If the son should not succeed, 
this proclamation of the father will be con- 
sidered as the last impotent effort of expiring 
usurpation. 

DiABY. — At Perregaux's I read the list of killed 
and wounded : thank God, my brother Ben not 
there. Lady E. Eorbes told me that there had 
been great rejoicings for the victory of the 16th 
and 17th, 101 guns fired, etc., but no news, no 
bulletin, on the Sunday or Monday. On the 
latter evening it was said the Empress had arrived 
at the Tuileries : all was joy. Lady E. Eorbes 
saw General Ornano, asked him if he had heard 
the good news, alas ! bad enough ; he held up a 
note. The Emperor is come back ; all is over. 
Lady E. Eorbes tells me that Madame Walewska 
breakfasted with Napoleon yesterday at Mai- 



GssT.Va. napoleon's PEKSONAl LOSSES ^S^ 

maison ; ^ found him quite calm. He was kind 1815. 
to her little Alexander. He talked ahout going 
to England ; said it was the only place in which 
he could be safe and well treated. 

Lady E. Eorbes added that seven members of 
the deputies, amongst whom was Sebastiani, held 
knives and pistols to Napoleon's throat and made 
Mm sign his abdication. She said Madame 
Walewska told her Malmaison is besieged by 
|>ersons asking for money. Poor MoUien has 
been threatened to be hauled over the coals for 
Suspicion of having given him some of the public 
treasure, but be did not, though he says he should 
have been glad to have done it. 

Napoleon lost all his money and treasure — twelve 
millions in gold were taken by the Prussians. 
He was determined to change the system of 
war and pay for everything. His end was 
to get to Brussels. As Drouot says, if he 
had succeeded everybody would have admired 
him. Posterity will judge whether he was right 
to try. 

' Note prom "Last Reign." 

The account of Malmaison being neglected must apply only to 
the first reign, for, during the last. Napoleon frequently visited 
that country-house, and took great delight in looking at the trees 
which he himself had planted. I must here mention that, although 
the relation given of the last days at Malmaison was communicated 
to me by a person who had just quitted the spot, yet I have 
received from another eye-witness a different story. He told me 
that in his last visit there were no chamberlains, no courtiers 
attendant upon Napoleon, and only Count Lab6doyfere and another 
aide-de-camp were habitual visitants. The number of impatient 
creditors was diminished, by the same authority, to two generals. 

VOL. I 37 



290 PAEIS Chap. VII. 

1815. Erom " Last Reign." — An extreme carelessness 
and generosity in pecuniary naatters is one of 
the characteristics of Napoleon ; he is incapable 
of refusing an application for money. He will 
carry from Malmaison only fifteen thousand 
louis d'or. It seems mean and ridiculous to 
couple these considerations with the name of such 
a man ; but during his varied career he has been 
in situations in which such considerations have 
been suggested even to himself. In those private 
letters, in his own hand, written to his first wife, 
when he was commander-in-chief of the army 
of Italy, which I have before mentioned as having 
read, he gives an account of the small fortune 
left him by his father (I think either eight or 
twelve thousand francs), and enters, besides, once 
or twice into some details relative to this patri- 
mony, and the state of his purse ; and, what is 
perfectly conformable to his character, gently 
reprqaches Josephine for having made no demands 
upon him. The excess of affection and esteem 
with which he talks of his brothers in those 
letters, and which some think has degenerated 
into a failing with him, adds another trait — a fit 
companion to his generosity. Even since he has 
been Emperor, although he has never been in an 
English prison, like Theodore, nor in English pay, 
like Maximilian, he has known what it is to suffer 
from scantiness of revenue, for, in the latter days 
of his abode at Elba, the grand master of his little 
palace retrenched the expenses of his table, by 



Chap. VII. CHAKACTBRISTICS OP NAPOLEON 291 

changing his favourite Chambertin for the wine of 18I6. 
the country— an economy to which he consented, 
readily and with a smile. Officers of all nations 
who had belonged to his armies resorted to his 
rock, and begged to serve him with such earnest- 
ness that, although he stated to them frankly the 
smallness of his means, some accepted twenty- 
five and thirty francs a month, rather as a pledge 
of his regard than as a remuneration of their 
offices. He will now be obliged to exert whatever 
philosophy nature or experience may have en- 
abled him to lay up in store for a reverse. Already 
he has recovered his wonted calm, even in the 
midst of the embarrassments of Malmaison, and in 
the uncertainties of his fate. ... A fondness for 
children is another of his peculiarities ; he was 
accustomed at Elba to invite Madame Bertrand's 
young family to dine with him almost every 
Sunday, and seldom sufPered them to depart with- 
out a small present of money or sweetmeats, which 
he put in his pocket for the occasion. I do not 
think these feelings incompatible with the appear- 
ance of the utmost unconcern, and all the demon-, 
strations of the coldest heart, when his situation, 
is such as to make indifference not only justifiably,, 
but to give it an air of heroism,. Napoleon w^S:^ 
exceedingly affected when he took leave of his, 
mother and sister on quitting Elba, so much so, 
indeed, as to say, " I must go now, or I shall 
never go." But the same man, when the beautiful 
Duchess pf Vicenza took leave of him fpir the l,9<st 



292 PAKIS Chap. VH. 

1815. time, after Ms abdication, and burst into tears at 
bidding him adieu, looked at her unmoyed, and 
saw her depart without a single expression of 
sorrow or regard. He received the intimation of 
the faithful Bertrand, that he would never quit 
him, but follow him into exile or to death, with 
the same unthankful silence ; thinking, perhaps, 
the acknowledgments of gratitude have neither 
value nor dignity in the day of distress. His 
friends here say now, what was said last year 
in England, he ought not to have survived his 
defeat. Those who think their own characters 
somewhat implicated in the conduct of their hero 
would fain have seen him close his career in a 
manner worthy of their champion and their king, 
and which should not belie their admiration of his 
person and their allegiance to his cause. Finding 
that he has been deserted both by victory and by 
death, they think that he should renew his search 
for the only one of the two blessings now within 
his reach ; they see in his captivity or flight 
a compromise of their own characters ; and 
though they must consent to survive his glory, 
would lament to be the sharers of his shame. It 
is impossible but that the thought of exerting that 
convenient privilege of ancient heroism must 
have suggested itself to his mind. In fact, it has, 

for he said to his aide-de-camp. Count -, 

" Quelque chose qui arrive, je n' avanoerai pas la 
destinSe d'tme heure." 

Measures have been taken to provide, according 



Chap. VII. ADVANCE OF THE ALLIES 293 

to his own desire, for his retreat to the United 1815. 
States ; and, for this purpose, orders were sent 
down to Rochefort, on the 25th, to procure 
two frigates for his conveyance across the 
Atlantic. 

Diary. Jnne 28. — I called on Madame Souza, 
found her half crazed; she bid me good-night, 
meaning to tell me to come to her at night. I 
went away, thence walked to Verey's, and dined 
with Bruce at the next table to General 
Marescot and a republican party, who were 
very merry and violent, and, as Bruce thought, 
very anti-English. This General was the man 
alluded to in the papers who made Buonaparte 
abdicate, and told him he would not leave the 
room until he had done it. 

After dinner I went to the Princess Jablanowski's, 
who is in a great fright. News arrives that the 
allies are near St. Denis. Cannonading has been 
heard all the morning. Mrs. Wallis sends to 
her to say Madame Bonpland is just come from 
Malmaison, and hints that Napoleon moves and 
puts himself at the head of his army to-morrow 
morning to march into Paris. It is said he was at 
Montmartrc this morning, 

I went to Madame Souza; she told me that 
Napoleon had been indignement traite, and 
Flahaut had performed des prodigues de valeur. 
Also that the officer who was sent to tell 
Grouchy to co-operate upon the right of the 



294! PABIS Chap. VH. 

1816. army to keep off the Prussians, went four hours 
out of the way. The Emperor thought the 
Prussians coming up were Grouchy's corps, and, 
indeed, sent Labedoy^re to tell Ney so. 

June 30. — Napoleon is gone; he went at four 
o'clock yesterday. The Duke of "Wellington has 
refused him passports as a safeguard to the coast. 
It is said he goes to America. There was a 
message to the Chambers yesterday relative to 
him. The Duke D6cazes, Minister of the Marine, 
gave an account of his communications with 
Napoleon, who, it appears, at first refused to 
go, and has done it at last very much against 
his will; and no wonder. 

Prom "Last Eei&n."— The Princess Hortense, 
his step-daughter, saw Napoleon half an hour 
before he got into his carriage ; he was then calm, 
she reports, and in good spirits ; but I learn that 
at the moment of his departure he was exceed- 
ingly affected, and when he took leave of the last 
of his two faithful aides-de-camp, embraced him 
four times before he could prevail upon himself to 
bid him a final adieu. 

DiABT. Jvme 30. — I called on Lady Elizabeth 
Eorbes and saw " La belle Polonaise," sister of 
Napoleon's Madame Walewska^ who told me that 
Napoleon once called Maria Louisa a ganache, 
which she, not understanding, applied to the 
arch-chancellor, telling hiin.he^-vfas. le ;plus grand^ 
ganache d^, l\^^pvree , 



Chap. VH. NAPOLEON's LIBEART 295 

I saw the Princess Hortense leaning over her i8i5. 
garden wall with some ladies, and absolutely 
smiling, nay, laughing. Now this is philosophy 
or insensibility which I do not understand. 

Called on Bruce. He tells me that Marshal 
Ney said to him yesterday night that if Napoleon 
had assisted him on the 16th, the English were 
lost, but that as to the 18th, the affair was 
desperate from beginning to end. The English 
soldiers, he said, fought like heroes. 

This evening it seems pretty clear that no 
capitulation is to take place immediately. On 
the contrary, Wellington has made a movement 
and crossed the Seine. 

July 1. — ^An armistice concluded between Mar- 
shal Suchet and General Bubna on June 28, after 
two battles. The allied sovereigns at Nancy, 
forty posts from Paris — 200 miles. 

In the Chamber to-day, Barbiere, ex-biblio- 
thecaire of Napoleon, demanded, upon Napoleon's 
request, the library of Trianon, consisting of 
about 2,200 volumes ; in which request particular 
mention is made of the great description of Egypt 
and the " Iconographic Grecque " of Visconti. The 
letter was referred to the commission established 
for taking care of the Napoleon family. The 
petition has since been granted, and the work on 
Egypt included, which was commenced under 
Napoleon's patronage. The magnanimous Chamber 
ordered that even the third part should be granted 
to him when finished. 



1815. 



29^ fAMS Chap. Vffi. 

Prom "LASt !Reign." July B. — It was known 
early this morning that there had been partial actions- 
yesterday at Nanterre, at Sevres, and upon different 
points on the right bank of the Seine, between 
Neuilly and Argenteuil ; that Versailles had been 
retaken, and the bridge of Choisy occupied by the 
Prussians. The Prussians and English passed the 
night in entrenching themselves in the wood of 
Meudon and Versi^res, and advanced early this- 
morning to the villages of Vanvres and Issy, as m 
preparation for a general attack of the combined 
armies on the capital. At eight o'clock the two 
armies were in face of each other ; the French in 
the plain of Grenelle, and the allies in the plain 
beneath Meudon. Piring had been heard and seen 
the whole night from the heights of Chaillot, 
which were crowded by people with telescopes. 
A portion of the cavalry of the guard, which was 
stationed in the Champ de Mars, rode off at eleven 
o'clock along the left bank of the Seine, and were 
the last to take up their positions, which, at 
twelve o'clock, seemed concluded, and left the two 
armies in line of battle. 

Some corps of infantry, amongst which were 
two battalions from higher Marne, joined the 
army to-day. The corps of Generals Lamarque 
and Travot are on the march to the capital. It 
was commonly reported early in the afternoon 
that a general action was on the point of being 
fought. The throng and the silence, and the 
eager looks of the multitudes in the gardens and 



Chap. VII. SURRENDER OE PARIS 297 

boulevards, the groups collected round, and trailing 18I5. 
after two or three straggling dragoons leading 
their wounded horses, or carrying orders to the 
headquarters of the square Vend6me; the dead, 
unsocial solemnity of the heavy patrols parading 
the streets without music ; the doors of the houses 
and courts all shut; the upper windows opened 
every now and then, and occupied by female faces, 
as the clattering horse of a gendarme announced 
the expectation of intelligence — every appearance 
of anxiety and apprehension, unusual even since 
the commencement of the siege, was to be 
recognised at the first glance for an hour or two 
after it was known that the two armies were in 
presence. More than once crowds rushed towards 
the elevated spots of the gardens and squares at 
the exclamation of individuals who announced the 
opening cannonade. 

At four o'clock the battle had not begun. I 

called on your friend, Madame , and found 

her in tears. I was thunderstruck with the news. 
Her son, the Lieutenant-General, had just left the 
army ; all was lost — Paris had surrendered, with 
a devoted army of eighty thousand soldiers before 
her walls. He was determined to denounce the 
treason and the traitors that night in the House 
of Peers. Leaving the house, I soon heard the 
intelligence confirmed, both relating to the capitu- 
lation and the expected denunciation. Indeed, 
the artillery and some of the troops are now filing 
through Paris in their retreat. 

voii. I 38 



298 PARIS Chap. VII. 

1815. In the proclamation of the Grovernment there is 
a phrase which might have been spared, and which 
has occasioned many comments. Napoleon is 
designated as a prince " abandoned by fortune 
and the national will." The first news of this 
prince since his departure was given this day in 
the Moniteur ; he was at Tours at eleven o'clock 
on June 30, and had a short conversation with the 
prefect on the state of the National Guards in the 
department of the Indre and Loire. Two days 
ago there was a current rumour of his still being 
in Paris, and at the camp ; a circumstance now 
accounted for from the extraordinary resemblance 
said to exist between Napoleon and two officers of 
the French army. 

DiABT. July 6.— I went at eleven o'clock to 
the Barrifere de I'Etoile to be witness to the 
extraordinary fact of English troops taking 
possession of the gates of Paris. 

I waited with a crowd a long time, and was 
just going away when I saw Pouchy in the 
Government green liveries, with six gendarmes 
attending him, go out of the barrier, to dine, as 
it turned out, with the Duke of Wellington. At 
last, at half -past four, after several English officers 
had been prowling about and had been refused 
entrance at the barriers, arrived one in splendid 
aide-de-camp majorial uniform, and after some 
talking with the Captain of the National Guard, 
which was formed in line, rode back, and presently 



Cbap. VII. PLIGHT OF NAPOLEON 299 

returned with a picket of ragarauffins of the I8I6. 
German Legion, who presently took post, the 
guard marching away. The gates, before shut, 
were opened ; a great crowd pressed in. I recog- 
nised Churchill in this officer. He was acting 
the General for that day, and was so denominated 
by the French. He was desired to stop carts 
from going through, this being a barriere de luxe, 
but he did not understand the distinction, and 
ordered another gate to be opened. Presently 
arrived Sir H. Clinton and his staff. 

In the Chamber to-day they began at ten. The 
colours and the statue of Napoleon had been taken 
away from the Chamber — a member moved that 
the national flag should be placed on the pedestal. 
It was done on the spot. A measure was adopted 
by which the commissaries to the army were 
ordered to communicate with the Commission of 
Government, and provide for the pay of the troops. 

By the journals I see Napoleon passed through 
Niort on the 2nd. Nobody talks of him now, 
but his pictures are up everywhere in Paris, the 
shops most of them being reopened. No one 
knows what is about to happen. Many entertain 
hopes from the firmness and noble conduct of the 
Chambers, seeing also that the King, who is close 
to St. Denis, does not dare yet to enter, and that, 
though the white flag is flying in all the neigh- 
bouring villages, nothing but the tricolour is to 
be seen at Paris. 

July 7. — I hired a horse to ride out to inq[uire 



300 PARIS Chap. VII. 

1815. concerning a point which occupied my whole soul, 
but on which, to say the truth, having read the 
list of killed and wounded, and having a feeling 
of good fortune, I had little apprehension. I shall 
spare myself the recital here of the manner in 
which I learnt how sadly I was mistaken, and 
what a wound was to he made in my heart by 
the loss of the most affectionate, the bravest, and 
the most honourable of men — the flower certainly 
of our unfortunate family — unfortunate, I may 
say, since it has to regret his fall. 

The whole loss of the British army in that fatal 
victory is in my mind reduced to one soldier. 
Had he lived he would have made his family 
happy and proud, but I fear his advancement 
would not have been sufficiently rapid to keep 
pace with his wishes to be serviceable, and to be 
distinguished, nor with his just sense of his o^n 
superiority. I could do nothing for him in the 
present state of domestic politics, and his father 
did not know the way. 

Had he been on the staff it is probable that 
service less exposed than regimental duty would 
have given us a chance of his days being pro- 
longed, but it is useless and painful to think so. 

I do not think he was very happy, nor do 1 
know, indeed, any man who thinks as much as he 
did, that is. His health was much impaired by 
his duty in Spain. In this manner do I attempt 
to reconcile myself to that which admits of 
alleviation but not cure. 



Chap. VII. DEATH OF CAPTAIN B. HOBHOTJSE 301 

This is the second great blow I have received, I8i5. 
the second of my social comforts that has dropped 
away ; one or two more such avulsions and I shall 
have no part of me left — life would be intolerable. 
I never did anything in my life for my poor 
brother, nor do I know that I could, but I might 
and ought to have tried. I was not unkind ; that 
is all I can say for myself, either with respect 
to him or any of my family. I envy him as I 
do every one who has lived honourably and ceased 
to live. 

Book. — My brother was killed at Quatre Bras. 
When I last saw him he was mounting his horse 
at Brussels, and I remarked to him that he had 
a bullet-hole in his cap. " Yes," he said, " I got 
that at Berghen-op-Zoom : it will be lower down 
next time " ; and so indeed it happened. He was 
on horseback, acting as orderly to General Halkett, 
and was in front of the line when the French 
skirmishers advanced. By one of these he fell. 
He was shot in the neck, and was killed in- 
stantly. 

My brother had served with the 57th Regiment 
through the Peninsular campaigns, and was at the 
battle of Albuera when that regiment lost between 
five and six hundred men. Lord Hardinge told 
me that he had ridden along the line just after 
the hundred and sixty survivors had been led off 
the field by a lieutenant, and that he beheld those 
who had fallen lying in two long lines, as he 
said, like a pack of cards. On that occasion the 



302 PARIS Qhap. VII. 

1815. 57th E,egiment got the name of the " Die-hards." 
My brother was attached to Lord Hill's staff 
during part of the Spanish campaigns, and was 
sent by him on detached service. He got his 
company, and joined the 69th Regiment in 
Planders, where he was wounded and taken 
prisoner in the unfortunate affair at Berghen-op- 
Zoom. 

My father sent the letter containing an account 
of his son's death at Quatre Bras to a very 
eminent member of Parliament, and he showed 
me the letter containing an acknowledgment of 
the receipt of it. The letter ended with these 
words : " Oh, how I envy your son." Only a few 
days afterwards my father's correspondent de- 
stroyed himself. 

Diary. July 7. — On this morning I met some of 
our officers, and amongst others Digby Mackworth, 
aide-de-camp to General Lord Hill, who got off 
his horse, walked with me and breakfasted at 
Tortoni's. Some of the Prussian cavalry passed 
along the boulevards, other corps of the Prussian 
army passed over the bridges. 

Mackworth told me Bliicher had asked the 
Duke of Wellington to have a public entry, and 
that Wellington said he might do as he liked. 
At one time the Duke intended to have one, but 
now he thinks not. 

The light division are in the Champs Elys^es, 
and other corps of the army are expected to come 



Chap. VII. DETAILS 01' WATERLOO 303 

in soon. All the barracks were prepared for them 1815. 
yesterday. 

Mackworth told me nothing was like the battle 
— the grape-shot blinded them with dirt ; all the 
staff lost horses, Wellington two. Wellington put 
himself frequently into hollow squares — the only 
place. The form of battle was squares of 
battalions. These the Prench cannonaded, and 
attacked with cavalry. The English laughed at 
this. They wondered the infantry did not 
advance upon them. 

The ^French cavalry cuirassiers particularly 
behaved nobly. Two regiments lost every man. 

Wellington, I hear, was in a blue cloak, which 
was not touched. He rode along all the lines 
repeatedly and was in the thickest fire. A young 
man in the staff corps told me this gained the 
battle. 

The great use of the staff, he added, was to 
prevent our regiments from charging friends 
instead of enemies. 

Mackworth told me that the battle of the 18th 
was gained entirely by the English, that it never 
was upon the point of being lost that day, but 
that Wellington was taken by surprise on the 
16th, and that the Prussians were beaten — lost 
15,000 men. Bliicher had his horse killed and 
was ridden over by a regiment of French 
cuirassiers. 

Mackworth was employed by Lord Hill to ride 
forward and speak to the Mayors of the French 



304 PARIS Chap. VH. 

1816. towns. These asked him what colours they were 
to hoist. He said, which they pleased; but if 
they did not wish to he plundered by King 
Louis XVIII. 's followers, they had better put up 
the white — some did, not all. He said the army 
did not care about the Bourbons. The Duke of 
Wellington never committed himself on that 
head. 

Leaving Mackworth, I met Bruce, who put me 
in spirits for the good cause — told me the 9th 
were behaving well. He dined with the Duke of 
Vicenza yesterday, who told him I am tranquil, 
but to-day I may be denounced, to-morrow in 
prison, the next day lose my head. 

He told me that Vicenza told him the concierge 
of the Tuileries had received orders from the 
Count d'Artois to prepare his apartments, and had 
sent to Government to know what to do. The Com- 
mission told him to lock up all the rooms and 
put a double guard and shut up even the gardens 
of the palace. They were shut to-day for the 
first time. The tricolour floats everywhere. I 
hear no Vive le Moi. Napoleon's pictures and 
busts remain. Old Viosm^nil was taken up 
yesterday for wearing the white cockade. 

General Fay told Bruce that a council of fifty 
general officers was assembled to decide whether 
Paris was to be defended or not ; forty-eight said 
No, two Yes. 

Mackworth told me the English had no notion 
there was any chance of the battle, though they 



Chap. Vn. THE ALLIED ARMIES ARRIVE 305 

wished it to annihilate the Prench armies, for i8i5. 
they had nearly 200,000 men, besides Wrede and 
his 40,000 who were making their junction. It 
was calculated that in three weeks the allies would 
be 600,000. 

I rode out to Clichy and other villages, which 
seemed in complete possession of our troops, 
Germans and others ; thence towards Bois de 
Boulogne. On my road I was recognised by an 
English officer who had a white cockade, and told 
me he was in the service of Louis XVIII. ; that 
they were determined to force the King down the 
throat of the French people, but that he did not 
wear his white cockade in the town for fear of 
displeasing the Duke of Wellington. He said 
many National Guards had come to St. Denis ; 
that he was employed in getting arms conveyed 
to them. 

I went to the Bois de Boulogne, which is full of 
our troops in tents. The scene is fixed for ever 
in my mind by the intelligence I there received. 
I returned to Paris. I remarked nothing in the 
streets, but going to the Barri^re de Olichy I met 
Lord Castlereagh and another in an open berlin 
attended by eight dragoons. 

July 8. — I sat in all the morning writing a 
letter to Lord Castlereagh, putting my little 
shoulder to the wheel to prevent him from naming 
Louis XVIII. King of Erance, when I heard a 
shouting, and, running out with my pen in my 
hand, saw a troop of National Guards with, music, 

VOL. I 39 



306 tARlS Chap. Vtt. 

1815. carrying white flags, handkerchiefs, and cockades, 
and crying, " Vive le S,oi." I asked what was 
the matter, why the National Guards were crying, 
" Vive le Boi." The King conies in at three or 
four o'clock. I went in and shut up my letter. 
About four o'clock saw handkerchiefs floating from 
the windows ; the street lined with National 
Guards in white cockades — not a tricoloured 
cockade to be seen ; the white flag and fleur-de- 
lys on the pillar of victory ; a vast crowd in the 
Rue Napoleon, and a haie of National Guards; the 
windows full of women and white handkerchiefs. 
It was a scene of perfect enchantment. I almost 
rubbed my eyes. However, I went into the little 
newspaper cabinet in the rue, and, taking up a 
Moniteur, one half-sheet, saw " Le Mbniieur est 
le seul journal officiel " ; and two proclamations 
of the King Louis of Prance and Navarre, the 
twenty-first year of his reign by the grace of 
God, also a proclamation by the Commission of 
Government, dissolving itself and the Chambers of 
Parliament. The Journal des Debats, the Journal 
de V Empire, gives an account of what it calls the 
last act of the ridiculous farce at the two Chambers, 
which, so far from being ridiculous, I find truly 
noble, and worthy of the best ages of liberty. 
The Government sent in the evening a message 
to them, shortly stating that the Allied Sovereigns, 
who seemed to differ as to their choice of a 
King for Prance at first, are now, as they learnt 
from the President's conference with the Allied 



Chap. VII. THE CHAMBER OE DEPUTIES 307 

Generals, determined to place Louis on tlie throne, i8i5. 
who would enter to-morrow. That as an armed 
force of foreigners occupied the seat of Govern- 
ment (Prussians bivouacked in the court of the 
Tuileries) their deliberations were no longer free, 
therefore they yielded to force ; in consequence 
the Chambers with them were separated and 
dissolved. In the Chamber of Deputies, where 
they were debating the question of the Consti- 
tution on the article of the hereditary quality of 
the peerage, at first a dead silence prevailed, but 
the members recovered themselves. M. Manuel 
made a noble speech, proposing, in the words of 
Mirabeau, that they should sit until expelled by 
the bayonet. Calm was re-established, the dis- 
cussion was continued, the peerage was voted to 
be hereditary, and Lanjuinais adjourned the sitting 
until eight the next morning.^ 

England, who made the exception to the eighth 
article of the treaty of March 25 in favour of the 
rights of the Erench nation to choose their own 
monarch, now decides that Erance is to be treated 
as a conquered nation. The Duke of Wellington 
behaves with the utmost moderation, the friends 
of freedom cherish every hope. Lord Castlereagh 
arrives; the curtain rises at once, and the royal 
personages appear unmasked. Muffling is made 

' Lanjuinais, J. Denis (1753-1827), a barrister of Eennes, and a 
deputy to the Etats G^neraux in 1789, but an opponent of the 
Extremists there, as later in the Convention in 1792. He was im- 
prisoned, but escaped and remained in hiding eighteen months. He 
was a Senator in 1800 ; and was created a Count of the Empire. 



308 PARIS Chap. VH. 

1815. Governor of Paris by Bliicher and Wellington, 
and tells the capital so in a proclamation couched 
in terms of unrelenting severity. By the side 
of this appear the addresses of the returning 
tyrant to his people, denouncing vengeance and 
restoring at one stroke of the pen the corrupt 
authorities which vanished on March 20. Not a 
word as yet of the Chambers ; they are gone and 
forgotten, as is Napoleon, whose portraits and 
busts have made way for the foolish faces of Lord 
Oastlereagh's king and his family. 

I waited in the Place Vend6me to see the King 
pass. He came into Paris in a shut coach, so full 
and so guarded that his person was discernible only 
by repeated scrutiny ; and, as there were three or 
four carriages exactly resembling his Majesty's, 
it was difficult to know precisely when the 
monarch passed, and at which moment to applaud. 
He was preceded by a battalion or two of National 
Guards of the northern departments, some of the 
line, dressed in uniforms of English cloth and 
make, a detachment of Swiss Guards, bodyguards, 
foot, and horse, royal volunteers, old coaches, 
diligences, military waggons, and a few cannon ; 
and he was followed by a mass of troops of all 
nations, apparently composed of officers, the line 
being closed with a second train of carriages, tax- 
carts, cabriolets, and Parisian hackney-coaches, 
full of women of every description, the whole 
entry having the air of a returning colony, or the 
breaking up of a camp-fair. 



Chap. VII. ALLIED TROOPS IN PAKIS 309 

Book. — The change was managed with great isis. 
skill and secrecy. The tricoloured flag was 
floating on the dome of the Tuileries at twelve 
o'clock. Before the evening all was altered ; 
the gardens and palaces were in possession of 
the Prussians and General Muffling was Governor 
of Paris. 

This second, and final, as was then supposed, 
destruction of the tricoloured party was hailed 
with somewhat intemperate glee by the partisans 
of the white cockade. 

Diary. — Thinking people give him a six 
months' reign. 

July 9. — Dined with Bruce. He told me that 
by letters from Bochefort it appears Napoleon is 
very low ; never has been so depressed. The 
Duchess of Vicenza, however, mentioned that he 
was of a very sanguine temper, and that any 
good news would restore him to his wonted spirits. 

The English are as much liked as the Prussians 
are hated. Bliicher does not recognise Maison, 
appointed Governor of Paris by the King of 
Prance. He says he is King, not Louis, and 
Muffling Governor. Wellington does not inter- 
fere in all this. The Prussians think they are 
the conquerors, and Bliicher says Wellington may 
ask for what sum he likes ; he shall have what 
he wants. 

July 11. — I called on Lady Kinnaird and saw 
both him and her. They were full of the Duke 



310 PARIS Chajp. VII. 

1815. of Wellington's praises. The Duke says they were 
quite right in staying if they were amused at 
Paris. The Duke says that Ney's story, a quelque 
exageration pres, is very true. He was at a ball 
at the Duke of Richmond's when the intelligence 
was brought him that the French were advancing. 
He turned to his aide-de-camp and said : " Those 
who want to get any rest to-night had better go to 
bed early ; we shall be busy to-morrow." The bands 
of the regiment, which were in the room, were sent 
away. The army marched at daylight. 

When the list of the killed and wounded was 
brought to the Duke of Wellington he burst into 
tears. In my eyes this does him no less honour 
than his victory. He told Kinnaird yesterday : 
" Well, I think I have saved the bridges. I sent 
a sentinel to each : they did not dare to blow my 
men up." He is much vexed at the Prussian 
excesses, but, says he, " What can I do ? Would 
you have me fight him; must I go to war with 
him ? " 

The Kinnairds tell me that Whitbread has killed 
himself — has cut his throat, doubtless the weak 
will attribute this to political disappointment. I 
hope to God it is not commercial derangement. 

July 12. — There is a report that Napoleon is 
taken. Went on to the Bois de Boulogne, where 
a Frenchman rode with me, who said he wished 
and expected Prance to be a colony of England ! 

Bruce calls and tells me that the Princess 
Hortense is ordered from Paris, and she will not 



Chap. VII. SUBMISSION OP PEENCH ABMT 311 

be suffered to go to Switzerland, because tbe i8i5. 
garden of her house there is in France. 

July 15. — Hillier called. He told me news of 
the battle of Waterloo. At half-past six it 
was a drawn battle, except that the English 
kept their ground. The officers were glad to 
think that they were off for that, when at half- 
past seven the last attack was made. The light 
brigade, 52nd, 71st, 95th, now in the Elysian 
fields, made an attack on the flanks by Adams's 
order. Hillier was ordered by Hill to command 
this attack, and saw it had been done. Hill 
then ordered up another attack to support the 
light brigade. This settled the day, for the Guards 
then attacked the Imperial Guard, who stood at 
first and then ran. It was a very near thing 
indeed. It is true that the French cavalry had 
turned all the positions, and were in the rear of 
our squares ; but they were not supported by the 
French infantry, to the astonishment of everybody. 
This Napoleon owns to be a fault. 

Wellington told Lord Hill that the sentinel 
whom he placed on the bridge of Jena was ordered 
off by those who were going to explode the mine, 
but answered he could not go until relieved by 
the corporal. 

The army have sent in their unconditional 
submission, it is said in the Mbniteur. 

Passed part of the evening with Lady Kinnaird, 
who told me the Duke of Wellington told her he 
believed he was protected by Providence, for the 



312 PARIS Chap. VII. 

1815. balls turned from him. and killed those to his right 
and left. He had no horse killed under him that 
day, and rode Copenhagen the whole twelve hours. 

July 16. — They cry about the streets, in the 
Journal de Soir, the " ddpart de NapolSon Bona- 
parte de Hochefort" but no one knows where he 
is exactly. 

The King had an audience with the Duke of 
Wellington this morning, and thanked him for 
his kindness to his poor people. 

Made up my mind to go home to England. 

July 17. — Went to Mrs. Wallis's. Pound a 
party and heard Clermont, the ex-representative, 
say he had heard from Rochefort dated 11th, and 
Napoleon was there and well received. The Court 
are frightened. 

July 18. — Got my passports. The final news 
in the Mbniteur of to-day is that Napoleon took 
refuge on board the Bellerophon off E/Ochefort, 
being pursued there by two prefects in a boat. 
The observations in the Moniteur, which is now 
under the control of M. de Vitrolles, upon this 
are denunciatory and very singular. 

I took my leave of Lascour, whom, with every 
Frenchman, I sincerely pity. They are not 
French. They say " les Frangais " as if they 
were another nation. 

July 19. — Went to Colonel Barnard's H6tel 
Bureau and got my passport, vis^d in Paris by 
an English commandant. 



Chap. VII. NAPOLEON AND JOSEPHINE 313 

Came home and went with Nonsazerwki, the i8i5. 
fair Pole to another Pole, Count Bastowitz, or 
some such name, who showed me most curious 
letters from Napoleon Buonaparte to Josephine — 
one a note when she was Mme. Beauharnais, most 
passionate and fond as all were, but in a natural, 
original style, full of heat and truth like 
Eousseau. He writes from Italy when com- 
mander-in-chief, and the heads of the letters are 
in print : " Buonaparte, Commandant-en-chef de 
Varm4e d'ltalie a Josdphine." Yet with all his 
fondness his opinion of women breaks out. He 
tells her to get as many lovers as she likes, and 
to let the world know it. He says : " I do not 
pretend that you should prefer me to your 
marchande tailleuse, to your spectacles, and a 
dinner with Barras. He is in some cases a little 
too warm. . . ." 

He says in one letter : I am more content with 
Beaulieu than his predecessor. We are trying 
who shall the soonest deceive each other. I shall 
beat him. He talks of his formerly braving all 
dangers with pleasure, but since his love for 
Josephine, he is not so bold. He fears to leave 
her behind; says little of the army. He re- 
commends his brother Lucien to her in the 
fondest terms. The love of his brother has 
always been a fault with him. These letters 
should be published. They show Napoleon in an 
extraordinary light. . . . 

Count Lobau told Colonel Stanhope that 
VOL. I 40 



314 PARIS Chap. VII. 

1815. Napoleon, after the Old Guard had failed in the 
attack on the English line, said, striking his 
forehead, " L'mfanterie anglaise est invincible." 
All other actions. Stanhope said, were skirmishes 
to this hattle. 

Dined at Verey's with Bruce, who told me that 
Andrassy, after his first meeting with Wellington, 
wrote to Latour Maubourg that they must take 
the King — there was no help for them. 

Book. ^ — I have mentioned some occasions on 
which I saw the Emperor Napoleon and the 
impression he made upon me. Nothing that has 
passed since these long-gone-by days has altered 
the opinions I then formed, except that I did not 
think him capable of the criminal error of leaving 
a sum of money to the villain who attempted 
to assassinate the Duke of Wellington. The 
excuse which at St. Helena he gave for that 
cowardly design is no excuse at all, and gives 
proof, besides, of a selfish malignity unworthy of 
a great man and a great soldier. He probably 
never knew that the Duke refused to assist in 
his capture, and wrote to Bliicher a letter on the 
subject, which the historian of the " Consulate 
and the Empire " declares will be one of his 
chief claims to the admiration of posterity." 

' The book was not printed till 1865, whicli accounts for the 
expression " Long-gone-by days." 

'' " On lui avait rapports que Bliicher voulait s'emparer de la 
personne de Napoldon, et, comme on le disait alors, tocher d'en 
d6barrasser le monde Le Due de Wellington lui adressa sur-le- 



Chap. VII. THIEES's " HISTOBT " 315 

It may seem surprising that Thiers, who could i8i5. 
speak truth with so much effect, should condescend 
to interlard his " History " with such jB.ctions as are 
contained in his account of the Waterloo campaign. 
And all for what ? To maintain the soldier who 
loses a great hattle upon the same level with the 
hero of a hundred victories. It is strange that 
M. Thiers does not see that depressing the 
military genius of the conqueror, does not raise 
the estimation of the vanquished, but just the 
contrary. . . . 

During this residence in Paris I formed an 
acquaintance with some very celebrated men — 
Talma, Denon, Bonpland, Humboldt the great 
traveller, Coray, Sismondi ; also with two or three 
of Napoleon's generals and public functionaries. 
Of these, several settled in England after the 
second restoration, and I had an opportunity of 
becoming exceedingly intimate with more than 
one of them. 

There was naturally a good deal of alarm when 
the allied armies approached the capital. A 
lady of my acquaintance, very nearly allied to 
a British General of great notoriety, fixed a large 
placard on the outside of her door, with the words 
Dame anglaise in large characters written upon 

champ une lettre qui sera dans la post6rit6 I'un de ses principaux 
titres de gloire. 'La personne de Napoleon,' lui 6crivit-il en 
substance, ' n'appartient ni k vous ni a moi, mais k nos Souverains 
qui en disposeront au nom de I'Europe. Si par hasard il leur fallait 
un bourreau, je les prierais de choisir un autre que moi, et je vous 
conseille, pour votre renommee, d^ suivre mon exemple.' " — Tom. xx., 
liv., Ixi., p. 456. 



316 PARIS Chap. VII. 

1815. it. I had some trouble in convincing her that, if, 
as she apprehended, the city was taken by assault, 
and an indiscriminate sack was the consequence, 
neither the English nor the Prussian soldiers 
would understand her designation ; and if, as she 
also thought not improbable, the Federalists rose 
and overpowered the civic authorities, her placard 
would not save, but endanger her. She listened 
to me, and removed the placard. 

Prom what I heard at the time, and have read 
subsequently, I can say that there was a visible 
difference in the conduct of the two armies, both 
officers and soldiers. And no wonder : the 
English had no defeats to avenge, no plunder 
to recover, no humiliating records to obliterate. 

Amongst the few English at Paris during the 
Hundred Days was Mrs. Damer. I called on 
that lady on May 2, and she gave me an account 
of an interview she had had the day before with 
Napoleon. It seems that three years ago she had 
sent a bust of Mr. Pox to Paris for presentation to 
the Emperor. The person who brought it, owing 
to some accident, was unable to deliver it. Mrs. 
Damer found it unchanged, except that the in- 
scription to the Emperor and King was scratched 
out. She contrived to get it presented through 
Denon, and received an invitation to attend at 
the Elysee at ten o'clock in the forenoon. She 
went at the appointed time, and, after waiting 
two hours, was shown into a room in which she 
found Napoleon standing at a table, on which was 



Chap. VII. MRS. DAMER's NARRATIVE 317 

placed the bust of Mr. Fox. Napoleon said that 1815. 
the bust showed not only the face but the mind 
of the original, adding, that if Mr. Fox had lived 
much bloodshed would have been saved. He 
talked of his own portraits. Mrs. Darner remarked 
that she had seen none like him. He asked her if 
she had seen Oanova's naked statue.^ She answered, 
" Yes ; but I do not think it is a good likeness, 
nor a good work of art." "You are right," said 
Napoleon. He then asked her opinion of David. 
Napoleon next inquired to what family she be- 
longed. She replied that the chiefs of her father's 
and mother's family were the Dukes of Argyle 
and Somerset. Napoleon asked her when she had 
arrived in Paris. She answered, " About the same 
time as your Majesty." Napoleon smiled and 
said, " N'aviez-vous pas eu peur de moi ? " She 
replied, " Non, sire ; les grands hommes n'effrai/ent 
~pas." The Princess Hortense was in the room 
during the conversation, but did not speak. Mrs. 
Darner learnt afterwards that Napoleon in the 
first instance had supposed her to be an artist 
wishing to sell her bust ; and she conjectured that 
when he found his mistake he wished to please 
her by asking after her family. 

Sismondi also had interviews with Napoleon, 
and from him I heard some of Napoleon's sayings, 
which appeared to me worth noticing. Por ex- 
ample, he remarked that the English were exactly 
the contrary to continental politicians. They had 
' Now in Apsley House. 



318 PARIS — ROUEN — ABBEVILLE Chap. VII. 

1816. opposed him without flinching a moment in the 
days of his success and glory. It was only after 
his reverses that they behaved courteously and 
kindly to him. Not so the victorious monarchs 
and statesmen of the Continent. " To be sure," 
he added, " je les ai un peu mystifies." When 
Sismondi complimented him upon his last exploit — 
the return from Elba, the sagacity and the com- 
bination of his plans — Napoleon said, " Je n'ai 
aucune autre mSrite que d'avoir bien devine la 
situation de la France." Again Napoleon said, 
" I am a child of the Revolution, and a friend 
of all liberal ideas. I confess I wandered from 
them sometimes when at the height of my power ; 
but I wandered from them without losing my 
respect for them. The Erench will wait for 
nothing ; they must always be in motion ; you 
can teach them anything but patience and perse- 
verance. Not so the English." 

Diary. July 20. — At half -past nine I left 
Paris for the last time now. Passing the Champs 
Elys6es saw the Light Brigade drawn up to be 
reviewed. 

July 21. — Went by Gaillon, Vaudreuil, Port 
St. Ouen to Rouen ; from Rouen to Abbeville. 
Put up at the H6tel d'Angleterre, which is much 
improved since last year. The allies are not so far 
down as Abbeville. The joy here for the King's 
return seems great. Crowns of green boughs and 
lilies the order of the day. 



Chap. VII. SURRENDER OF NAPOLEON 319 

July 22. — Travelled the usual road, and arrived 1815. 
at Calais by tlie evening. 

July 23. — Went over in a packet, the Princess 
Augusta, and had a bad passage from six to half- 
past nine, when I put foot on English ground 
again. 

July 25. — Set off for Whitton, where I arrived 
and had a scene which I will not describe with 
my dear father and family, whom I found all 
well, with a small party. 

July 26. — Pind Buonaparte's surrender to the 
Bellerophon has made ten times the sensation 
here it has in Paris. They say he will be sent 
to St. Helena. They said at Calais he was in 
London. Lord Camden, whom I met on the road 
near Boulogne, would not believe it when told by 
Ures, the messenger to him. They knoM^ nothing 
in England, but talk of strong measures. 

BpoK. — Early in 1816 I published an account 
of the Hundred Days and the Second Bestoration 
of the Bourbons, called the " Last Beign of the 
Emperor Napoleon." In preparing that work 
for the press I was assisted by a very celebrated 
writer, who was much concerned in the transac- 
tions of those perilous times — I mean Benjamin 
Constant, with whom I afterwards formed an 
intimacy that lasted during the remainder of his 
life. I also consulted another eminent personage 
much in the confidence of Napoleon. But the 
help afforded by both these gentlemen was con- 
fined to reading the printed work before it 



320 " THE LAST EEIGN OF NAPOLEON " Chap. VIL 

1815. appeared, and informing me of any mistakes 
which might be corrected, either by changes or 
by the insertion of additional matter. 

I believe this work to have given a fair repre- 
sentation of facts, although I confess that subse- 
quent consideration would induce me to modify 
some of the opinions which it contains. I am 
not, however, nor ever was, inclined to alter any 
of the general conclusions deduced from the 
narrative. On the contrary, if at that time I 
thought the return of the Bourbons a public 
calamity, not only to Prance, but to all Europe, 
I have in the long interval since those days seen 
abundant cause to maintain that opinion. Neither 
the virtues, such as they were, nor the vices of 
those princes suited the French people. The mis- 
takes of the elder branch have been recorded by 
the most able of contemporary writers, and the 
events which led to the downfall of the Orleans 
family have not left a favourable impression of 
their capacity for government, certainly not for 
the government of Frenchmen. 

My work received honourable mention from 
Constant in his volume on the " Hundred Days," 
published in 1820 and 1822 ; but he was pleased 
to object to some inaccuracies which he said he 
had discovered in my volumes. He did not state 
what these inaccuracies were, and he was prudent 
in refraining from so doing; for if he had specified 
the errors, I should have asked him how it 
happened that he had not pointed out the errors 



Ohaf. Vir. " THE LAST REIGN " 321 

to me when he looked over the volumes at my i8i5. 
request, previously to publication. I might have 
remarked on the criticism of Constant at the 
time, but did not for obvious reasons. My friend 
was then in Paris, and might have got into 
trouble if it had been known that he had assisted 
me in the production of my volumes : for the 
author of the French translation of them had 
been prosecuted by the Bourbon Government, and 
punished with fine and imprisonment. 

I may as well mention here that I sent a copy 
of " The Last Reign of the Emperor Napoleon " to 
Napoleon at St. Helena, requesting, at the same 
time, Sir Hudson Lowe to forward it to him. 
Sir Hudson thought proper not to deliver the 
book to Napoleon, on account of the inscription 
on the back of it, which gave to Napoleon the 
title of Emperor. Napoleon, however, procured 
a French translation of the book, and sent me, 
through Las Casas, an acknowledgment of it. 
I heard from Count Montholon that Napoleon 
had dictated to him some sheets of comment on 
my volumes, besides some marginal notes written 
on the volume itself. Both of these documents 
she desired Montholon to deliver to me, and the 
Count promised me to do so ; but he did not 
send them.^ 

I heard the same story fronl Count Bertrand. 
With him I had some conversation at Holland 

" I also sent a_ copy to the Princess Hortense, and received an 
acknowledgment from her. 

voij. I 41 



S22 LONDON SOCIETY Chap. VII. 

1815. House, and heard him reply to the question how 
he could he reconciled to Sir Hudson Lowe after 
Sir Hudson's treatment of Napoleon, " Que voulez- 
vous ? Napoleon 4tait mort, V autre vivait, et 
quelquefois je me trouvais a sa table." 

Diary. July 27, London. — Saw Lord and Lady 
Byron, and Kinnaird. I am not in the collection, 
but care not. Newstead is to he sold, if possible 
to-morrow. 

July 28. — Rode up to London again, went with 
Byron to Garraway's, where Newstead was bought 
in at £95,000. Called on Lady Noel, who wants 
Byron to sell hugely. 

Before I came out of London, heard the Gazette 
Officielle from Prance to-day contains what I 
dreaded, a list of proscribed : nineteen for their 
lives, others banished. Napoleon is to go to 
St. Helena, and that island to be bought by the 
King from the East India Company. The Minis- 
terial papers are angry at the distinction paid 
him, and because people stand with their hats off 
in his presence. 

His letter to the Prince Regent is very good. 
He still acts en prince on board the JBellero- 
phon at Plymouth. The curiosity to see him here 
is unabated. 

July 31. — Byron confesses he sometimes thinks 
that nothing is left for it but to follow Whitbread's 
example. Byron is not more happy than before 
marriage. D. Kinnaird is also melancholy. This 
is the state of man. 



Chap. VII. NAPOLEON ON THE "NORTHUMBERLAND" 323 

August 4. — Dine at Burdett's. Present Bicker- isis. 
steth, Lord Byron, Miss B., and Mr. B. Lord 
Byron tells me he and she have hegun a little 
snubbing on money matters. Marry not, says he. 

August 5. — Napoleon has sailed for St. Helena. 
He is to be transferred to the Northumberland. 
They say he was cheered getting under weigh. 
There are various stories of the manner in which 
he received the news of his place of destination. 
Some say he talked of dying. 

August 8. — Dined with Kinnaird, Burdett, 
Byron, and Knight. No great things this — all 
grumbled at life. 

August 9. — Napoleon is transferred to the 
Northumberland, and is gone to St. Helena, with 
four friends and twelve servants. So ends the 
greatest man of modern times, overwhelmed by 
a monstrous coalition, but owing his final over- 
throw to a single step of imprudence — his return 
to Paris after the loss of the battle of Waterloo. 

August 16. — Dined with Ellice. Met a large 
party: S. R. Spencer, Lord Jersey, Perry, Hat 
Vaughan. Perry mentioned that Admiral 
Cockburn's brother had heard from the Northum- 
berland, that the first day Napoleon was sick 
and requested the Admiral's cabin. " Tell the 
General," said Cockburn to Bertrand, " that it 
is against the rules of the service to give up an 
Admiral's cabin to any one, much less a prisoner 
of war." The next day the dinner-bell rang at 
three o'clock. Bertrand brought a message saying 



324 LONDON SOCIETY Chap. VII. 

1815. that the Emperor was sick and wished it put ofiF. 
" Tell the Greneral that my orders are precise to 
make no alterations in my ship on his account." 
Savage rascal ! 

Hear from EUice that Douglas Kinnaird is the 
efficient manager of Drury Lane. 

August 21. — See Lord Kinnaird, who tells me 
he will revise my pamphlet and review it. 

November 25. — Called on Byron. In that 
quarter things do not go well. Strong advice 
against marriage. Talking of going ahroad. 

December 13. — Called on Elahaut, 32, Thayer 
Street. He is gone to Woburn. B.. Constant is 
writing about Napoleon's last reign. 

Saw that Ney has been shot and behaved 
gallantly. Lavallette not shot. There is one 
General Bowmont who talks of the conspiracy 
having existed for three months before Napoleon 
landed. Ney gave him the lie in court before the 
Peers. A sort of amnesty has been projected by 
the King. Saw neither Kinnaird nor Byron. 

December 22. — Called on Lady Noel, who seems 
very ill. Called on Byron — saw his child, 
Augusta Ada. The latter a name of some one 
who married into his family in the reign of King 
John. ' 

Rode to Holland House. Saw Lady Holland, 
who told me she positively knew that Pouche was 
in correspondence with Louis at Ghent, and that 
Napoleon knew it and spoke to him about it. 

She asked me to stay and dine, I stated boots 



Chap. VII. DINNER AT HOLLAND HOUSE 325 

as objection. Says she, "There will be nobody i8i5. 
here but me and Caroline." I knew not who 
Caroline was, but said nothing. Lord Holland 
at last came in, and seemed pleased to see me. 
Address praised by both. Jekyll says it is good. 
I found Hatsel had cut it out of the paper. She 
asked me for a copy of the epilogue. 

I consented to dine. Lord Holland handed me 
into a room, where I sat and wrote to Hillier a 
little. 

Lady Caroline Lamb came in and cooed a good 
deal, very good-humouredly. She told me the 
Duke of Wellington told her that nothing could 
exceed the meanness of Louis XVIII. in his 
dealings with the English in regard to the pictures 
of the Louvre. 

At dinner we had Hookham Prere the anti- 
Jacobin, Whishaw, W. Lamb, Rose, Parthenopex, 
Plahaut, and an Italian, with Dr. Allen. I was 
between the first two at Erere's deaf ear. We had 
very good talk. 

Lady Caroline Lamb defined truth to be what 
one thinks at the moment. Lord Holland said 
that Eox said Swift could not have been an ill- 
natured man, he wrote such good nonsense. 

A saying of Dudley North's on Lord Erskine's 
acceptance of the green ribbon was taken by 
Sheridan as his own in this way. They say of 
Erskine : 

And when great lawyers go astray, 
Their stars are more in fault than they. 



326 LONDON SOCIETY Chap. VII. 

1815. We did not know at first whether this was 
Paulo. Prere said Purgetti. Lord Holland quoted 
it wrong, as he did two or three things of Pope. 

Byron told me a saying of Sheridan's. Monk 
Lewis was offering to het him all he owed for 
the Castle Spectre. "I'll make a large het," 
said Monk Lewis. " No," said Sheridan, " I never 
bet large bets, but I'll bet you a little bet. All 
it is worth." 

Whishaw told of Serjeant Hargrave that his 
wife said to him when he was going to dine with 
the Prince of Wales, "Now, Mr. Hargrave, 
recollect not to contradict his Royal Highness, 
not to start a new subject, and not to tell long 
stories." It was either Serjeant Hargrave or 
Serjeant Hill who said to Lady Holland, "And 
your Ladyship knows the mind of woman does 
not reason." 

Some stories were told of Plumer's ^ pleading 
on the bench, asking himself questions, etc. A 
lawyer said, " Am I expected to answer all these 
questions ? " " No, no, brother, you know this 
is but a form of speech." 

Lord Erskine, when at Minorca, wrote an 
epigram against a Middlesex trial by jury ! 

When we came into tea, Prere repeated epi- 
grams in Erench and his own English, a very 
good one of a happy, dull couple. However, he 

' Sir Thomas Plumer (1753-1824), one of Warren Hastings's 
counsel in his trial, became Master of the Rolls 1818. At this time 
he was Vice-Chancellor of England. 



Chap. VII. SCOTT's " PAUL's LETTERS " 327 

had translated esprit doux, a spice of spirit, which 1815. 
is evidently a meek spirit. Also one of a pig 
eating chestnuts in the Maubry style. I left the 
party whilst !Flahaut was repeating an epigram : 

Le mari dort, le chien dort, 

which was approved by every one but Caroline 
Lamb. 

Lord Holland told that such was the aversion 
formerly to foreigners that old Meynell said one 
day, after the American peace was made, " I 
wish we were all safe and at war again." Lady 
Holland mentioned she remembers when it used 
to be said in the invitation cards : " No foreigners 
dine with us." 

Plahaut could not shine so much, but was 
agreeable. He said he wished that he and 
Sebastiani could see my book on France before it 
came out. 

Walter Scott has published or is to publish a 
thing called " Paul's Letters to his Kinsfolk," 
which Lady Holland called, " Paul to his Kings- 
folk." Erere owned to having dined in former 
days with a Jacobin calico-printer, and Gilbert 
Wakefield. 

December 27. — Went to Manchester Buildings. 
Walked to printers', who promised all should be 
ready by Saturday. Called on Murray. He de- 
clines publishing and is to write to Ridgway for 
me. Dined with Kinnaird ; met Plahaut and 
Lord Erskine with his star on. 



328 LONDON SOCIETY Chap. VII. 

1815. His Lordship bored Elahaut sensibly about 
Napoleon, but was good when he began to talk 
of himself. He repeated his epigram made at 
Minorca, when he was a lieutenant of foot, 
against the Middlesex jury who cast General 
Mostyn in £3,000 for strikiag a Minorcan. It is 
very good. The turn is that the Middlesex jury 
could not try their peers, for the devil himself 
was their only peer. He repeated also a farewell 
to the muse and army when he took to the law — 
very good indeed. One line was : 

Great Homer never lived till he was dead. 

He told us that it was he who advised Lady 
Huntingdon to turn her preacher — who was going 
to be prosecuted for setting up a church chapel, 
under pretence of being Lady Huntingdon's 
chaplain — into a licensed dissenting preacher. At 
that time there were only four Methodist chapels 
in England, and thus, said Erskine, " by follow- 
ing my advice Lady Huntingdon began the great- 
est moral revolution that ever occurred in any 
country." 

Erskine told us that the morning he gaiaed 
Stockdale's cause, he got £10,000 damages in a 
criminal court, and walked home quietly to his 
house by six o'clock. The Stockdale cause came 
on very unexpectedly. He was sick in bed. 
Macdonald, afterwards Chief Baron, Erskine's 
friend, told him he could plead the cause no 
longer. Erskine came down and made his oration. 



Chap. VII. LORD BESKINE 329 

He told us his published speeches only made isis. 
nine days of a life of twenty-eight years at the 
bar, and that not the most brilliant. He told me 
his plan was never to think of himself when he 
spoke, but only to think how he should convince 
those before him, jury or judge. 

He gave us an account of his receiving the 
thanks of the convention, introduced by Barnave 
and others, after drawing up their system of 
jurisprudence ; part of which prevails at this 
day. He gave us an account of his interview 
with Buonaparte as first consul, who had sent to 
say he wished to speak to him. 

Erskine was introduced as Chancellor of the 
Prince of Wales by Merry, and Napoleon knew 
him not, but afterwards he stayed at Josephine's 
evening party, and Buonaparte blamed Merry, say- 
ing he ought to have known that your name was 
a greater distinction than your title. 

He talked of the code which Erskine had=drawn 
up, and could not be brought to think that the 
jury was useful in civil courts. Elahaut told us 
that he heard Napoleon say the same thing to 
the Council of State, adding, in Persia every 
passenger is used as a physician, in civilised 
countries medicine is a study, and none but 
practitioners prescribe. Why will you take 
twelve ignorant men to decide a law question 
instead of a lawyer ? 

December 28. — Dined at Royal Society, where 
heard that the recoil of guns is owing to the air 

vox-. I 42 



330 LONDON SOCIETY Chap. VII. 

1815. rushing into the vacuum created by the ignition 
of the powder, and not the reaction of the powder. 
Barrow said that the origin of the discovery was 
the trials made at Woolwich upon hearing of the 
slung guns at Matagorda, which carried a ball 
two miles and three quarters. All were dis- 
believers of this except a Captain Tuckey of the 
navy. 

Barrow mentioned that one of the best accounts 
of China ever published was written by a man who 
had never been out of Italy. 

Banks told us that 200 miles over the hills 
behind the settlement at Botany Bay savages had 
been seen ; one of them on being approached ran 
up a tree and howled violently. 

December 29. — At seven. General Sebastiani, 
General Elahaut, Byron, and Kinnaird dined with 
me at Wattier's. We had a pleasant day on the 
whole. Sebastiani and Elahaut disputed about 
Rousseau ; Sebastiani very eloquent in his defence. 
When Elahaut and Kinnaird went away, Sebastiani, 
Byron, and I talked Italian, and Sebastiani was 
vastly entertaining. He mentioned that Chateau- 
briand confessed to him at Constantinople that his 
book was previously written, and he only wanted 
to give a local colouring to it. He talked to us of 
Sultan Selim, with whom he was most intimate, 
and mentioned a speech made by Cheliti Effendi 
in council, when the English fleet first appeared. 
" We at Constantinople lose a tenth of our popu- 
lation by the plague, and a fourth by fires, one 



Chap. VII. GENEKAL SEBASTIANI 331 

year with another, yet we murmur not. Shall we is is. 
then be alarmed because the English may kill a 
few of our women and children ? Never shall it 
be said that force has frightened the Mussulmen 
to yield to either English or French, or any 
Christian nation." It was then determined to 
resist, but Greneral Sebastiani told them to negoti- 
ate and gain time. He had the utmost difficulty 
to prevent the janissaries from crowding into the 
fleets to fight the English. The Captain Pasha 
told him he should be cut to pieces if he attempted 
to stop them. He received a letter in Selim's 
handwriting telling him he must fly. He con- 
firmed everything I have asserted in my "Travels." 
He told me that Napoleon said to him during his 
last reign : " My dear Sebastiani, it is very well 
talking of the English Constitution, but I had 
rather not reign at all than reign as King of 
England." I don't know what to think of this 
story. Sebastiani is a rogue. 

December 31. — Determined to learn a little 
poetry every night ; began with Johnson's " Death 
of Levett." 

February 9. — Byron's " Siege of Corinth " and isie. 
" Parisina " I bought to-day. It is to be pub- 
lished on Tuesday. He showed me that the first 
was dedicated to John Hobhouse, Esq. The poem 
is inscribed by his friend. He thought this sub- 
lime. I should have liked it better if he had not 
dedicated " Parisina " to S. B. Davies. I told 
him this. 



332 LONDON SOCIETY Chap. VH. 

1816. February 13. — I made out the last word in 
Ali Pasha's letter which Lord Holland asked me 
to translate. Enclosed it to Lord Holland. This 
is an exploit such as I have not long performed. 

At evening read aloud my dear friend's " Siege 
of Corinth," the greater part of which is nohle 
in the extreme. 

March 1. — I dined at 20, Saville Row — a large 
party : Tierney, Horner, Mackintosh (an inmate), 
Whishaw, Flahaut, Perry, Lauderdale, W. Russell. 
They crowded and crushed my lady, who was 
highly indignant. The party in great spirits at 
the Wednesday last dehate ; think the Income Tax 
will not be carried. I was much complimented 
on my book by all, particularly Mackintosh, 
Whishaw, and Horner. 

Tierney told a story of Lord Aberdeen's butler, 
who lost an eye by winking at his master, which 
was a good bottle of wine. 

Perry mentioned to me that the Duke of 
Northumberland had written a letter ordering 
his members to vote against the Income Tax. 

March 4.— Dined at the Piazza with Scrope. 
Went to Drury Lane. Joined Mrs. and Miss 
Cuthbert, etc., in Byron's box. Saw Sir Giles 
Overreach. It is a heavy play ; but Kean is 
wonderful, in the last scene particularly. 

March 9. — Lord Byron called in his carriage 
and took us to Drury Lane ; there, after some time, 
I heard my prologue murdered by Mrs. Batley, 
who misrhymed, etc. It was applauded, however. 



Chap. VII. DR. JOHNSON AND THRALE 333 

Then we saw the Duke of Milan. Kean was isie. 
wonderful in parts ; but the play was to me rather 
heavy, though full of incidents and co . . . up 
to the last scene. 

April 3. — Rode up to London and settled at 
Lord Byron's, No. 13, Piccadilly Terrace. S. B. 
Davies and L. Hunt of the Examiner dined 
with us. 

L. Hunt told us a new story of Johnson. A 
friend or partner of Thrale wanted to make an im- 
pression on him. He met him on a bench in 
Thrale's garden ; sat next to him and said, " I 
think the Spectator, sir, is the finest book in the 
language." " Perhaps not, sir," said Johnson, and 
walked away. Finding criticism would not do, 
my man determined to assail him with a fact, and 
at dinner told him that there was to be seen at 
Birmingham a pair of scissors that would cut 
pig-iron. Johnson laughed, and asked him for 
some cauliflower. Some time after the party 
went to Birmingham, and the aspirant showed 
Thrale the scissors. Johnson was not present; 
but the gentleman anticipated his triumph at 
dinner, knowing Thrale had told Johnson of the 
fact. He was all condescension and complacency, 
determined to use his victory mildly, when John- 
son thus accosted him : " Well, sir, my friend 
Mr. Thrale says he has seen these scissors that will 
cut pig-iron, and he is a man of veracity." 

April 8. — Dined at Mr. Sastres's with my father. 
Sastres told a story of an Englishman who stayed 



334 LONDON SOCIETT Chap. VII. 

1816. a fortnight in Voltaire's house without seeing 
him, and when he went away wrote a note, telling 
Voltaire he was like " le bon Dieu, on boit, on 
mange ses viandes, et on ne le voit Jamais." 

Voltaire read the note, " Ah, qu'on me le 
rappelle," said he, " cet aimable impie," and 
dispatched a courier after his chaise. 

April 22. — Rogers came to take leave of 
Byron ; Hanson came in the morning, and told 
us he had just left Lady Byron, who looked 
well, but was " torn here," putting his hand to 
his breast-bone for the place of his heart. He was 
prepared to object to the presence of Mrs. Clermont 
had she been in the room, but, however, she was 
not there. Dined at home. Everything prepared 
for Byron's departure. All his papers put into 
my hands. He received a visit from Mr. and 
Mrs. Kinnaird at night, who brought him a cake 
and two bottles of champagne. Dr. Polidori did 
not go to bed; I did. 

April 23. — Up at six ; breakfasted, but not off 
till half-past nine. Polidori and I went in Scrope 
Davies's chaise ; Byron and Davies in Byron's new 
Napoleonic carriage built by Baxter for £500. 
There was a crowd about the door. When we got 
some way I looked back and, not seeing Byron's 
carriage, conjured up all sorts of accidents in my 
fancy. At last, however, it came along with 
Fletcher and Bob Bushton. Arrived at Dover 
by half -past eight ; dined at the Ship. 

In to-day's Chronicle appeared a very sensible 



Chap. VII. DOVER 335 

paragraph, by Perry, I suppose, about Lord Byron, I8I6. 
and announcing bis departure from the country. 
Byron said be sbould be discussed at the British 
Forum next to Captain Hannover and Mrs. Giblet. 
(He has been, as I saw after my return.) 

April 24. — This morning Pletcher told me the 
bailiffs had got into No. 13 and had seized every- 
thing. I was in alarm respecting their descent 
to Dover and the carriage, therefore had it put on 
board as soon as possible. Wind contrary, from 
eastwards, and strong. 

Dined at five ; walked in the evening to the 
church to see Churchill's tomb. The old sexton 
took us to an open spot or churchyard without a 
church, and showed us a green sod with a common 
head-stone. Byron lay down on the grave and 
gave the man a crown to fresh turf it. 

Polidori was very strange to-night. His attach- 
ment to reputation and his three tragedies is most 
singular and ridiculous. Byron said I shall have 
the reputation of having made a sober, common- 
place fellow quite mad ! 

April 26. — Up at eight, breakfasted ; all on 
board except the company. The Captain said 
he could not wait, and Byron could not get up 
a moment sooner. Even the serenity of Scrope 
was disturbed. However, after some bustle out 
came Byron, and, taking my arm, walked down 
to the quay. By the way he said, as he had often 
done, " Do you think there will be any necessity 
for publishing ? Perhaps we had better, at any rate, 



336 boron's DEPAKTURE Chap. VII. 

1816. be ready for them." He got on board a little 
after nine : the bustle kept Byron in spirits, but he 
looked affected when the packet glided off. I ran 
to the end of the wooden pier, and as the vessel 
tossed by us through a rough sea and contrary 
wind, I saw him again ; the dear fellow pulled off 
his cap and waved it to me. I gazed until I 
could not distinguish him any longer. God bless 
him for a gallant spirit and a kind one. 

I shall, fate allowing, join him in two or three 
months. He sometimes talked of returning in 
a year or so, at others of being longer away, but 
told me he felt a presentiment that his absence 
would be long. Again God bless him. 

Scrope Davies and I got into the chaise and 
went to London, where we arrived by eight o'clock. 
We went to Kinnaird to tell him we were coming 
to dine with him, when, lo and behold ! we were 
told there was a row expected at the theatre, 
Douglas K. having received fifteen anonymous 
letters stating that Mrs. Mardyn would be hissed 
on Byron's account. We dressed, dined with 
Kinnaird ; no disturbance at Drury Lane ; the 
fifteen letters two or three. 

Kinnaird indignant at Brougham, who attacked 
Byron at Brooks's for his deformity. Curse him. 

Eind that Parsons was but just in time to save 
the papers. The bailiffs came in ten minutes after 
Byron set out on Tuesday, and declared they 
would have seized his carriage. Even the birds 
and squirrel are detained. 



Chap. vm. bbottgham's calttmnies 337 

April 26. — Dined at Perry's. He was angry isie. 
with me for not having read the Champion and 
for not having sent him word when the deed was 
signed ; I have done with him — a good lesson. 
Brougham has been with him, telling him that 
Byron cheated the Duchess of Devonshire of 
£500 (for rent of his house). I said it was a 
lie out loud, and desired any one present to tell 
Brougham so for me. Kinnaird, S. Davies, and 
I all thought something should be done to stop 
this horrible insolence of Brougham's, who in 
appealing to Perry did the very same thing to 
which he objected in Byron's friends. 

April 27. — Called on Kinnaird, who told me he 
had seen Lord Holland, who dissuaded an attack 
on Brougham; said that Byron must rise, that 
in Paris everybody condemned Lady Byron, that 
the fact of there being nothing stated against 
Byron must be in his favour. Kinnaird therefore 
recommended silence. Called on Lady Melbourne. 
She told me what Kinnaird mentioned about the 
letters, mentioned that Miss Doyle had said " she 
should burst, and that if she might speak she 
could tell such a story." 

This is very different indeed from the behaviour 
of Lord Byron's friends. Whilst we were talking, 
in came Lady Caroline Lamb. She was ready to 
sink. I said in her hearing that I trusted that 
Lord Byron's enemies would condescend at last 
to perch upon a fact. After this visit I left the 
verses to Mrs. Leigh with Lady Jersey, and 

VOL. I 43 



^38 liADY CAROLINE LAMB Chai.. Vtl. 

1816. then rode home to Whitton, and thus finished, for 
the present, this feverish business. 

April 29. — I read the Abb6 de Pradt's " Am- 
hassade de Pologne," on the way to Dover. It is 
a very singular work, and puts Napoleon's char- 
acter in the same light as Constant represented it 
to me — not a cruel man, but one who did every- 
thing by system, and looked on man as a mere 
machine. 

April 30. — A letter from Byron dated Ostend, 
April 27, where he arrived at midnight, apparently 
in good spirits. 

May 3. — Began copying and writing " Byroni- 
ana." 

May 8. — This day desired Bidgway to tell me 
what he would give for my copyright of second 
or other editions. He boggled, and next day sent 
to say 180 copies were left of old edition, and that 
he would share profits. 

MaylO. — Murray's shopcrowded for "Bertram."^ 
Yesterday Lady Caroline Lamb published a novel, 
" Glenarvon." The hero is a monster, and meant 
for B. ; the Princess of Madagascar, Lady Holland. 
The new Atlantis over again. 

I called on her, and was asked if any harm had 
been done by her book. Henry Webster was in 
the room attacking her for her abuse of his 
mother. 



' Bertram, or the Castle of St. Aldehramd, by Charles Maturin 
(1782 — 1824). Owing to Lord Byron's influence it was put on the 
stage at Drury Lane, and Kean acted in it. 



Chap. VII. LADY CAROLINE LAMB 339 

May 11. — Desired CuUen to make Longman a I8I& 
proposal to buy my copyriglit. Began " Byroni- 
ana " again. 

May 25. — Mnished "Byroniana" — seventy-two 
sheets of letter paper. Write to Mrs. Leigh 
frequently, and hear from her. 

Dined at Holland House : Mackintosh, Lord 
and Lady Cowper, F. Kemhle, Mr. and Mrs. 
Whishaw, etc. ; Mackintosh far the best. E. 
Kemble talked of plays, but said not much. 
Lord Holland told that M. Taylor read the Riot 
Act to his own servants, and then said, "Now, 
I'll commit you all," 

In the evening Lady Holland showed me the 
letter to Lady Caroline Lamb that had caused the 
commotion. She had said something to allay 
the rumour about the page.^ Lady Caroline wrote 
a foolish letter to thank her. Lady Holland 
returned a sensible note, begging her to think 
of her family and friends, and not expose them 
to similar trials for the future. This she said she 
never would forgive. 

Lady H. is much hurt, and she told me that 
the Grreys, and Lansdownes, and Jerseys would 
cut her, and that she was now two pegs lower 
with the Argylls and others. 

Sir James Mackiatosh, Lord Holland, and 
Whishaw, all advised me not to answer the 
Quarterly Review of January 1816. Mackintosh 
said, " Never defend ; attack, if you please." 

■ Lady Caroline Lamb liad appeared in a page's dress. 



340 LONDON SOCIETY Chap. VII. 

1816. Sebastiani said, " Ilfaut attendre et se venger." 

May 27. — ^Read Park's second Tolume of Travels.^ 
His last letter to Lord Camden, dated Lansanding, 
before be set off down tbe Niger, is quite over- 
powering. He says he will die on the Niger, 
even if he be the only white man left. Out of 
forty-four, only four were left at Lansanding, all 
the rest dead ; amongst them his brother-in-law, 
Anderson, whose death, he says, left him a second 
time alone in the wilderness. 

It does appear that the opinions in favour of 
the Congo being the mouth of the Niger are the 
best founded of any as to the outlet of that mighty 
river, the uncertainty of whose course and termi- 
nation gives to it, as Whishaw observes, a certain 
sublimity. It is the fountain of a river which is 
usually unknown, and not its mouth. . . . 

May 28. — I wrote five sheets of Preface to 
" Byroniana," and completed that work.^ 

May 31. — ^Went to the play to see Mrs. Siddons 
as Queen Catherine. I shall never forget her 
saying to the messenger, " At least you are a 
saucy fellow " ; nor the air with which, when he 
begged pardon on his knee for his intrusion, she 

' Mungo Park's Travels, published in VlQQ. 

^ From January 17, 1816, Hobhouse's time was much occupied 
with Lord Byron's affairs and his impending separation from Lady 
Byron. In order not to break the sequence of the Diaries during 
the London season of 1816, the Editor deferred alluding to the 
history of the separation till the detailed account was completed by j 
Hobhouse, May 28, under the title of " Byroniana." This full and 
accurate account is published for the first time in separate form 
as Chapter XV., Volume II. 



Chap. VH. " GLBNARVON " 341 

said, " But never let me see that fellow more." isie. 
I (and we) expected he would he forgiven, hut 
was much struck with the persevering anger of 
majesty. 

Unforgiveness is a royal virtue, and partakes 
of high-mindedness. I never felt this hefore, 
hut I am now sure of it, hy the admiration 
excited hy Queen Catherine in this instance. 

Kemhle is quite gone — no voice at all ; he is 
nothing. 

June 5. — Rode up to London. Ordered clothes 
for travelling. Called on Lady Melhourne, who 
showed me two letters, one from Lady Caroline 
Lamb, whose husband takes her part, notwith- 
standing George Lamb has written to beg him 
to part with her, and Lord Melbourne has de- 
clared he will not live in the same house with 
her. She talks big of the rights of English 
women, and swears she will not go. She will 
be sent away. 

She attributes George Lamb's and Lady M.'s 
indignation about " Glenarvon " to their taking 
part against the pure Lady B. Prom this lady 
is the other letter, which gives an opinion about 
" Glenarvon " — and such an opinion — almost 
favourable ; but so involved and talking of dis- 
closures, as if it would lead to them, or had 
originated from them. I cannot understand which. 
She then talks about the " Antiquary," all so coolly 
— says the child is the finest she ever saw. I 
hear she is handing about an exculpatory letter 



342 LONDON SOCIETY Chap. VII. 

1816. about unforgivingness, but not from Lady M. ; 
this comes from Mrs. Leigh. 

Dined at the Eumelian, where was Stoddart of 
the Times, an agreeable man ; and Shee, the artist, 
an agreeahler ; also Jimmy Boswell, who is going 
to give a Life of Malone. . . . Charles Grant was 
there. 

Saw Murray to-day, who tells me " Glenarvon " 
has done Byron no harm, but the contrary. 
Heard from Byron this morning. He is at 
Geneva, expecting to see me or to hear from 
me. 

Jtme 6. — Dined at Harry Drury's, where I was 
miserable until the ladies went, when Heber, 
Hallam, and Lord Stanley, and myself kept up the 
ball. "We had decent talk and much laughing. 

Heber made me much advance. He said he 
did not believe Gifford wrote the review of me 
in the Quarterly} His style was known. He 
told us a story of Coleridge, who repeated his 
war, fire, and famine, to Sir Walter Scott, and 
said it was written good-humouredly against Pitt. 
There was a little playful incident relative to the 
" houseless dog " which proved it. , 

Hallam told us that a plain man who was 
dining with Sotheby when Coleridge was present 
and had been declaiming long, at last put down 
his knife and fork and said : " Somehow or the 
other, sir, it is odd one hears of no poets in these 
times." Coleridge said, " Pardon me, sir ; I take 

' It was written by Croker. 



Chap, vn, MADAME KRUDNER 343 

it we haTe more poetry than has been known isie. 
since the days of Milton. My friend, Mr. Words- 
worth, for example." He then repeated some 
rhapsody of Wordsworth. 

June 9. — Benjamin Constant came to-day. At 
night he entertained us mightily with a story of 
Mme. Krudner,^ the Livonian, the Saint of the 
Holy League, before whom the Emperor of 
Russia has knelt for hours, and who used to have 
hundreds kneeling before her. 

She believes and teaches that death is but a 
trifle in a man's life. She advised Constant to 
live in some village in Alsace, where there was 
but a small living population, but where, said 
she, there is very good dead company. 

June 17. — Occupied chiefly with my brother 
Henry, who arrived from Hounslow and India 
yesterday. He left Napoleon at St. Helena, 
occupied in drawing up a memorial against Sir 
George Cockburn. He has a regiment encamped 
around Longwood, and never rides beyond this 
encampment, except with an officer or two 
dragoons. He once rode away from his officer, 
and an alarm was given all over the island. 
He came back quietly, asking what was the 
matter. 

' Julie de Wittinghoff (1764-1824), born at Eiga, married, at the 
age of fourteen, Baron de Krudner, Russian Ambassador at Berlin. 
After a somewhat dissipated life she became a sort of revivalist 
mystic, and exercised a great influence in Europe, especially over 
the Czar Alexander. She was said to have predicted the escape 
of Napoleon from Elba. The latter part of her life was devoted 
to religion and good works. 



344 LONDON SOCIETY Chap. VII. 

1816. He was lately amusing himself going out in an 
open carriage and shooting little birds. 

He says, " Why confine me if I am in an 
island ? " He says he would have sooner died 
a thousand times than have put himself into 
the hands of the English, had he known the 
event. He might easily have escaped by land, 
he says. 

He has quarrelled with Madame Bertrand for 
praising the English, and only the day before 
Henry left St. Helena, sent her his permission to 
dine with him. . . . 

Napoleon one day was looking over a little boy 
at Mr. Balcombe's at St. Helena, who had a map 
before him. He desired the boy to point out 
Moscow, and then asked him who burnt it. The 
boy said, " You did." " No, no," replied he, " you 
are wrong ; never say that again, it was not I, it 
was E/Ostopchin, the Russian. You must always 
tell the true story." 

Napoleon now will not frequent any of the 
houses in St. Helena on account of his treatment. 
He says if they use him well he will live with 
them, but not whilst he is treated so scurvily. 

Henry tells me that they discovered in the 
Tuileries, in 1814, the whole plan for the in- 
vasion of India, admirably laid, all the ports and 
passes marked, and, according to the best military 
authorities on the spot, as well contrived as 
possible. 

Henry thinks the sepoys would have beat the 



Chap. VII. NAPOLEON'S DESIGNS ON INBIA 345 

French. Lord Moira had these plans sent to him, isie. 
and, when the danger was over, made .a mighty 
fuss ahout it. The Nepaulese have beat the 
English, so much so, that many natives have 
refused to pay tribute to John Company any 
longer, saying their reign is over, like that of the 
Mosques and the Mahomedans. The Nepaulese 
must now have the tribute. 

Henry mentioned some curious instances of 
valour and dexterity on the part of the Nepaulese, 
who fight with matchlocks, a sabre, and a knife. 
One of them cut off the heads of two sergeants of 
an English regiment, and was killed by a third. 
They have a general equal to any European. 

Warren Hastings is loved in India. Lord 
Wellesley is called the Great Governor. He 
would have taken all the country between the 
Indus and Ganges. 

June 18. — Called on Lady Bessborough, who 
told me Byron would be pleased with " Glen- 
arvon " ; that the letter, " I am no longer your 
lover " was his ; and when Lady Caroline Lamb 
received it she cut herself with a razor, and would 
have done more had not Lady Bessborough laid 
hold of it, and defied her to draw it through her 
hand. 

She took her daughter's part with B., but said 
she would sooner she had died than published her 
novel. She said men were all alike — the torment 
of women being their passion and end. . . . 

Lady B. told me she would do her best with 
VOL. I 44 



346 LONDON SOCIETY Chap. VII. 

1816. Caroline, wlio, she said, was frightened. She is 
partially cut. She said I praised her novel at 
first. I told my mind to Lady B., and said I 
would give her no quarter. She said she was 
not to be menaced. Lady B. and I parted 
friends. 

June 22. — Lady Caroline Lamb has a second 
edition of " Glenarvon," and in her Preface talks 
of it being written in affliction ! 

We went to Covent Garden and saw Mrs. 
Siddons as Lady Macbeth, she was as wonderful 
as ever. Young, a bad Macbeth. 

June 27. — My birthday. 30 — i^iivij— thirty . 
Looking back I see an eventful year that is 
morally eventful. Alas ! alas ! I have done 
nothing but write my Letters from Paris and 
lose my time in expectations concerning that 
which will never be realised. I have read no- 
thing and done nothing. Lord Byron's business 
has occupied an unreasonable portion of my time, 
and all to no good. My bit of comedy, melo- 
drama, prologues, have kept me occupied about 
nothing. 

I took no advantage of the little run which 
took place in my favour for a short time, and here 
I am, as ill-placed in this world as ever. I get 
more idle, and more shy, and more luxurious. I 
think my hearing is a little better. I would not 
go to London to-day to see Miss O'Neil. 

July 10. — . . . Violent letter from Lady Caroline 
Lamb. 



Chap. VII. SHERIDAN's PUNEBAL 347 

July 12. — Setting off for London to get or go 18I6. 
about passports. Met a man on the road asking 
me to come to Sheridan's funeral. 

Book. July 13. — I attended, by desire of the 
executors, the funeral of this extraordinary man. 
His remains were removed to the house of Mr. 
Peter Moore, 7, Great George Street, and the 
attendants walked, two and two, to Westminster 
Abbey. The procession was headed by the Bishop 
of London, who had prayed with Sheridan in his 
last moments, administered the sacrament to him, 
and spoke of his fervent devotion whilst receiving 
the sacred elements. The long list of princes, 
dukes, earls, cabinet ministers, and other person- 
ages who followed the coffin to the Abbey is given 
in Moore's " Life of Sheridan." The Burial Service 
was ill-performed by Dr. Fynes, Prebendary of the 
Cathedral, and no one seemed much affected as 
the coffin was lowered into the grave, except Mr. 
Charles Sheridan and Mr. Linley. The whole 
ceremony was far less imposing than that which I 
had witnessed ten years previously when Charles 
Pox was buried in the Abbey. But, generally 
speaking, public funerals are not affecting ; and 
often they are very much otherwise — tiresome 
and scrambling; the beautiful psalms, and even 
the music, are lost in the length and fatigue of 
the ceremony. 

DiART. — There has been a very good article on 



348 liONDON SOCIETY Chap. Vll. 

1816. Sheridan in the Times. He had not inspired 
respect or love. Lord Eldon said of Sheridan: 
" Every man has his element : Sheridan's is hot 
water." He is the last of the luminaries, at all 
events. 

I called on Mi's. Leigh. Poor thing, she did 
not know what to say. Lady B. corresponds with 
her again, in good terms, but not so affectionately 
as before. Went to Foreign Office and got a pass- 
port. 

July 18. — The day the world was to be at an 
end. 

July 27- — Saw all my chattels properly packed 
up, Byron's three boxes marked, my own MS. 
properly disposed of ; and then at four o'clock 
took leave, as if to return next day, of my sisters 
and my brother Henry. 

So ends the season of 1816. 



END OP VOIi. I 



PHnted by Hazell, Watson & Viney, Ld., London and Aylesbury.